Stage 2 Research Project B 2018 School Assessment Cover Sheet for Assessment Type 2 Research Outcome SACE Registration Number Research Question ___________________________ ____________________________________________ _____________________________word count_________

Stage 2 Research Project B 2018 School Assessment Cover Sheet for Assessment Type 2 Research Outcome SACE Registration Number Research Question ___________________________ ____________________________________________ _____________________________word count_________ (2000 max or 12 mins) SynthesisS1S2S3 Performance Standards for Stage 2 Research Project B -SynthesisAS1 Insightful synthesis of knowledge, skills, and ideas to produce a resolution to the research question. S2 Insightful and thorough substantiation of key findings relevant to the research outcome. S3 Clear and coherent expression of ideas.BS1 Considered synthesis of knowledge, skills, and ideas to produce a resolution to the research question. S2 Substantiation of most key findings relevant to the research outcome. S3 Mostly clear and coherent expression of ideas.CS1 Satisfactory synthesis of knowledge, skills, and ideas to produce a resolution to the research question. S2 Substantiation of some key findings relevant to the research outcome. S3 Generally clear expression of ideas.DS1 Basic use of information and ideas to produce a resolution to the research question. S2 Basic explanation of ideas related to the research outcome. S3 Basic expression of ideas.ES1 Attempted use of an idea to produce a resolution to the research question. S2 Limited explanation of an idea or an aspect of the research outcome. S3 Attempted expression of ideas. Outcome 891928H Research question What is complementary medicine and is it of any benefit for patients as part of their cancer treatment plan Introduction Cancer is a genetic or environmentally influenced disease affecting the bodys cells and occurs when an abnormal cell forms in an uncontrolled way. Cancer is formed when abnormal cells that are old and damaged are surviving, although they shouldve died. New cells are formed alongside these old cells when they are not needed and begin to divide, creating growths called tumours. Cancer can be genetically influenced by germline mutations which occur through the passing from a parent to a sperm or egg cell. Cancer is environmentally influenced by acquired mutations that occur through damage to genes through cells. Therapies to treat cancer are aimed to completely destroy the cancer cells in the body. These therapies include chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and are suggested as standard treatment to anyone diagnosed with cancer. The cancer cells are active whilst these therapies destroy them, however, so are the healthy cells. Conventional treatments on healthy cells produce side effects, dependent on the location of the treatment, generating physical and psychological side effects. What is complementary medicine Complementary medicine is a term used to define a large range of healing therapies that are not considered part of conventional medicine. complementary is used to describe therapies that accompany or replace conventional or evidence based therapies. Complementary medicine is usually confused with alternative medicine, which is used instead of conventional or evidence based therapies. Complementary medicines are orientated from historical and cultural backgrounds and are holistic, meaning it intends to heal the illness along with what caused the illness by taking into account social and mental factors of the patient. This differs from conventional medicine, which is highly supported by scientific evidence and only focuses on correcting the problems that are causing symptoms and treating the condition. Complementary medicine is loosely categorized into five main types traditional alternative, Mind-body therapies, manipulative/body-based therapies, energy therapies and dietary/herbal products. Traditional alternative medicines are one of the most accepted forms of complementary medicine and are included in some conventional medicine centres. These therapies have been used globally for centuries and include acupuncture, homeopathy and naturopathy. Acupuncture is a traditional alternative medicine originated in ancient China, involving fine needles placed in disease affected parts of the body. Acupuncture is more effective at helping chronic pain, such as muscle and back pain or can be used to complement cancer treatment. Yoga is a popular type of mind-body therapies practiced by combining physical movement and concentration on the mind. Yoga achieves relaxation by balancing the state of mind and body which releases chronic muscle tension and improves diaphragmatic breathing. The several postures of yoga are beneficial to the bodys system as well as improving oxygen intake. Osteopathic manipulation is a body-based therapy to treat musculoskeletal injuries such as back pain, sports injuries and lower back pains. Osteopathic practitioners perform massage, stretching or mobilisation and focus on not only the injured area, but the body as a whole. Energy therapies intend to find energy within a patient or work energy into a patient through light, sound, magnets or healing touch. Electromagnetic therapy includes electrical devices to balance the bodys electromagnetic frequencies. Energy therapies are focusing on the belief that imbalanced fields of energy in the body can cause diseases or illness. Electromagnetic therapy is included in conventional medicine, for example shocking a heart back into rhythm after a cardiac arrest. Dietary supplements are a diverse range of products containing herbs and botanicals, vitamins and minerals. Dietary supplements are specifically not classed as medicines because they do not have to be proved to be effective by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) or any other organisation. These products are used to support health or wellbeing and are not prescribed to patients. What types of complementary medicine work Complementary medicine is used to lessen the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, improve quality of life and relieve pain. Some common side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy include nausea, fatigue, insomnia, vomiting and depression. These side effects can be managed by different types of complementary medicine. Stress is a side effect of conventional medicines and can affect the wellbeing of cancer patients. Mind-body therapies are effective at reducing stress by focusing on increasing mental awareness and is attentive to thoughts and feelings. A randomized trial was conducted on 91 cancer patients to observe the effectiveness of meditation on stress reduction. After participating in a 7-week meditation practice for 1.5 hours, patients experienced reduction in stress symptoms by 35 and had a 65 mood disturbance decrease. Insomnia is another common side effect of conventional medicine, affecting the sleep of cancer patients. Relaxation therapy slows the heart rate, decreases oxygen demand and lowers blood pressure by deep breathing, self-hypnosis or guided imagery. (Mayden, K 2012) states evidence from a clinical trial conducted on 26 cancer patients that received muscle relaxation training. 15 patients reduced in lack of sleep from 124 minutes, to 29 minutes. The most recommended types of complementary medicines for cancer patients are meditation, yoga, music therapy and massage for stress reduction, to help depression and improve quality of life. Acupressure and acupuncture are effective for assisting reduce nausea and vomiting by chemotherapy. The credibility of complementary medicine is questioned due to lack of scientific evidence provided. Studies and clinical trials can only be conducted with support and money. These quality studies can only be funded by people that are intrigued and willing to find scientific evidence of complementary therapies, which is difficult from recently having qualifications removed from universities. Funding for qualifications through TAFE has also been removed, and therefore removing the reliability of complementary practitioners. Complementary practitioners do not have to be registered professionally to practice, which brings the potential of contraindicating practices to conventional medicine. Registered training organisations have removed these qualifications, because students do not see the worth of doing the courses if they arent getting a desired health care reputation. Certain types of complementary medicine practitioners rely on anecdotal evidence to continue their businesses. Anecdotal evidence is dependent on personal experiences of a therapy working, rather than relying on scientific evidence. An interview was conducted with a registered kinesiology practitioner whose career relies on anecdotal evidence. Over 30 years, this registered kinesiology practitioner has provided service to hundreds of clients and relies on the outcome of their patients health as their evidence that their practices work. When asked if they believed kinesiology has any benefit to patients, they claimed I do not need to believe kinesiology works because I have a wealth of anecdotal evidence. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is Australias regulatory authority responsible of regulating goods such as prescription medicines, vaccines, medical devices and vitamins and minerals. The TGA is responsible of managing dietary supplements, one of the most commonly used types of complementary medicine. Dietary supplements arent listed medicines because the ingredients are low risk and arent likely to cause harm. However, because the ingredients are natural, it doesnt always mean they are of any benefit. In 2010, the TGA reviewed dietary supplements and found no evidence to support any benefits, with 90 of products were not compliant. Australians spend 1.2 million dollars a year on these products even though some are proven to have no benefit at all. These products were not reviewed before, because the TGA do not require proof that the products work. The businesses must hold that it works. Although these products have been reviewed and proved they dont have any effect, they are still able to be sold on shelves of chemists and supermarkets. Products can continue to be sold if they entitle to have been used traditionally, or suggest they dont cure diseases. Products stated scientifically formulated and scientifically reviewed until the TGA reviewed their products. They now state traditionally used. These products are also not allowed to make any claims to treatment or reduction of the disease, and are therefore still allowed to be sold. What are the best types of complementary medicine for cancer treatment There are many reasons why cancer patients turn to complementary medicine throughout their treatment. Most had been practicing therapies before they were diagnosed, whilst others believed these therapies avoid damaging the body and help to detoxify it. Others believed conventional therapies would provide no outcome or the use of complementary medicine would help the patient to feel more in control of their treatment. Patients learn about complementary medicine through friends and family, television and radio and the internet. An alarming fewer than 10 of patients in a German study gained information from health professionals . Most patients consider complementary therapies without telling their health care providers. This brings the potential of contraindicating therapies, which can be extremely dangerous and even fatal for cancer patients. Certain complementary therapies have negative interactions with conventional therapies such as chemotherapy. Herbs such as Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea and St Johns wort can alter activity of anticancer drugs such as P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 isozymes that are part of chemotherapy. Therapies can be contraindicating, dependent on the type of cancer and the side effects that conventional treatments produce. For example, Acetyl-L-carnitine is a dietary supplement breast cancer patients turn to in hope to help fatigue and nerve problems produced by chemotherapy. Acetyl-L-carnitine was found ineffective for helping fatigue and could harm the nerve system even more. Recently, a case reported a woman that had turned to alternative therapy even though she was a nurse of conventional medicine. Helen Lawson was diagnosed with ovarian cancer, and was about to begin conventional treatment until influenced by an unregistered proclaimed healer of alternative medicine. Dennis Wayne Jenson persuaded Helen to shun conventional treatment and allow him to heal her. Dennis used black salve, an alternative therapy made from bloodroot and zinc chloride. Black salve destroys skin cells and tissue, remaining only a thick black scar on the skin. Black salve is illegal in Australia because it is so dangerous. After continuing to use black salve on Helen and claim the cancer was almost gone, she died with large open wounds of mutilated flesh from her pelvic bone to her abdomen. Jensen is among many other claimed healers that persuade vulnerable cancer patients these dangerous therapies can cure cancer, although cancer can never be cured because it always has the possibility of returning. Researchers have reviewed studies done on 80 complementary therapies used with breast cancer. These types were mind-body therapies, and were graded from A to D. A having strong evidence of providing benefits and D meaning the therapy had no effect on the patients. Meditation had the strongest evidence, scoring an A. Meditation is recommended for improving quality of life and reducing depression and anxiety. The therapies scoring a B included yoga and music therapy for improving quality of life and mood. Acupuncture and acupressure scored a B for reducing nausea and vomiting produced by chemotherapy. Yoga and hypnosis received a C for helping fatigue. There was a lack of evidence that supports the benefit of dietary supplements or natural products for cancer treatment . Conclusion Complementary medicine covers such a wide spectrum of therapies with some providing strong evidence of effectiveness, and others not. Ming-body therapies such as meditation, acupuncture and yoga proved strongest evidence of reducing the side effects of conventional treatment such as fatigue, nausea, depression and help to improve quality of life. Dietary supplements and natural products proved least effective, contraindicated with chemotherapy and can even cause harm to cancer patients. Complementary medicines can be safe, but only when used or practiced under the influence of a health professional. Quality research is further needed to determine the reliability of complementary medicines, and to close the gap between complementary and conventional medicine. What is cancer 2018, Cancer Australia, accessed 24 July 2018, https//canceraustralia.gov.au/affected-cancer/what-cancer. 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