Philosophy and religion has captured interest of many philosophers in the past generation until now. These two subjects (Philosophy and Religion) have received many attentions from different philosophers trying to understand the difference between the two. Notably is Solomon championing religion through his works from Ecclesiastes, songs of Solomon and proverbs. At the end of the book Plato and Socrates dominated the subject (philosophy) at the end of the book.
Religion comes from comes from the word Latin lingare: which means to join, classically understood to mean the liking of human and divine and Philosophy comes from the Greek word philosophia, literally “love of wisdom” is the study of general and fundamentals problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. The main focus is “Justice”, “Just Man” and “True happiness “.
Let me start with justice: Is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early theory of justice was set out by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The republic. Religion includes the analyses of religious concepts, beliefs, arguments and practices of religious adherents.
Justice is the constant and perpetual disposition to render every man his due. Toullier defines it to be the conformity of our actions and our will to the law. In the most extensive sense of the word, it differs little from virtues. Let the common distinction between them is that that which considered positively and in itself is called virtues, when considered relatively and with respect to other has the name of justice.
Justice is either cumulative or distributive.
Justice according to Socrates would secure that each member of the society should perform his duties and enjoy his/her rights. As a quality residing in each individual, justice would mean his personal life was correspondingly ordered with respect to the rights and duties of each part of his nature.
This shows us that justice was personal however we learn that to Solomon justice was for the righteous alone which brings us to a conclusion that philosophy and religion are different as we ought to see that philosophically justice is eternal and religiously justice is divine.
Socrates also stated that justice is the name given by the men actually holding power in any state to any actions they enjoy by law upon holding power in any state to any actions they enjoy by law upon their subjects and that all their laws are framed to promote their personal interests. The above statement is noteworthy that justice is being used as a weapon of social injustices upon the weaker.
The book of proverbs by Salomon states that by Justice Kings give their country stability, this shows that to Solomon justice is laudable which brings about fairness and equality in a country through its use by Kings. This further shows the distinction between Religion and Philosophy as these factors are parallel to each other.
The Greek philosopher Plato had a different view of justice. He said “Justice brings happiness in one’s life, he explains this by saying happiness in its largest sense , welfare, well-being or doing well is a very complex and one cannot readily describe it in detail all that goes to make it up, but does it not necessarily say human soul, man’s vital activity as a whole in its best state or is performing well the function it was made to perform.
Another difference between philosophy and religion is when Paul took a radical view on this matter when he says that justice is a punitive means by God to punish the unrighteous. It is clear from the above discussion that religiously justice is to make the unjust suffer while philosophically justice makes one to attain happiness.
Socrates states that justice is Profitable, this is noted when Socrates says that one who praises justice speaks truth, he who disparages it does not know what it is to he idly condemns, he has no conception. Thus it is clear that justice is a virtue and it makes man behave ethically. This shows that religion and philosophy are different as Solomon in proverbs he says that wicked man accept bribes to pervert the course of justice, from this statement Solomon is states that those who accept bribes are bringing injustices in the society or country, therefore it is understandable to say religion and philosophy are unalike as we see that philosophically praising justice is a depiction of truthfulness while Solomon says perverting its course is wickedness.
Secondly is just-man. Let me start with the word “Just”. Just means ethically, morally and legally correct. This epithet is applied to that which agrees with a given law which is the test of right and wrong.
A just man is also a man who has stopped all rebellion against God. A just man is without sin and obedient to God. Socrates likens a just man to a person who is well, this is shown when he says that nothing is place pleasanter than to be well though they never knew it until they were ill. And people in great pain will tell you that relief from pain is the greatest pleasure in the world. This idiom consequently depicts being a just man is the greatest thing a man can do. Thus being a just man is equally to being well be it state of mind