Part I

Part I: Literature Review
The Field of Service
            Foster care and Child Abuse are part of the Child Welfare System. Children are removed from their homes and put into Foster Care when they are at a risk of child maltreatment. Child maltreatment can include child neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and even emotional abuse. Children are also in a risk of Child Abuse when a caregiver or a parent simply take the action of whether death, causes of injury, or even emotional harm. In any of these cases the Child Welfare System will take these children and put them in foster care home until they either reunite with their families or find a permanent home with an adopted family. When a child doesn’t get chosen by a family, Foster care will be their permanent home until they get adopted or unite with their family. For the purpose of this research paper, foster care and child abuse will refer to what these children face during their teen years.
            According to Matthew B. Seely(2011), Child Abuse is common and it has reached to the point where it affects the child’s physical health and his/her happiness. He also claims that Child Abuse affects the society because the people who are abused as children then they are more likely to become criminals or abusers themselves. On the other hand, Foster Care children face the possibilities of failing school and homelessness but, the reason they for their home placement is because of family violence, abuse, neglect, and/or abandonment. I will further explore what happens to these kids and what they go through.
My interests in the field of service
            Ever since one of my friends went through the loss of her parents in a car accident has interested me finding ways to make Foster Care homes a place where it feels like home just like its called a “home.” Although she went eventually went with her some of her family members, I still thought that I could make a difference even if nobody saw it. I never knew that it would actually become true since I’m here researching about it.
The Target Population
            The target population focuses on all children of ethnicities and race. Also, children of all ages from newborn to 18 years of age since when a teen reaches 18 years of age they get out of the Child Welfare and System and from the Foster Care System. Studies have shown that a newborn child is more likely to be adopted then someone who is 12 years old or older. There isn’t any target population that focuses on child Abuse and Foster Care but Children, Hunger, and Poverty, a journal of Wiley Blackwell (2013) states that “Nationally, one in five children are living in poverty. It is mainly up to states to take care of feeding these children. Recently print media in two states, Arizona and Maryland, highlighted the child poverty issues. This means that in the U.S. poverty has been significant in the states of Arizona and Maryland and that nationally one in five is living in poverty. 
            According to Charles A. Williams (2011) there are many factors that lead the children to Foster Care. A study has shown that 67 percent are parental neglect, 16 percent with physical abuse, 9 percent with sexual abuse, 7 percent with psychological abuse, and much of this takes in early childhood. When these children face these experiences in early childhood they often develop issues such as angry and low self-esteem and that makes them more violent.
The Role of Social Workers in the Field of Service.
               According to Charles A. Williams (2011) the Social Worker professionals make an effort to protect the children from any acts. He states that “Many efforts are made by child well-of family violence, abuse, neglect, and maltreatment, far too many foster care youth report experiencing such things while in foster care (Stein 2001).” This means that Social Workers do their best to make sure that the time these children spend in foster homes are to felt like home. Their roles are to make sure that the anger and violence these children develop when being victims of abuse or assault that they are protected and to make sure that in later in their years they won’t be doing it to someone else.  They also counsel families to find better solution to their problems; to place abused children in loving homes; help adoptive parents and adopted children navigate the adoption system and most importantly help children and families make the best out of the Child Welfare system.
Practice Methods of Social Workers who work with Foster Care and Child Abuse children
            Social workers who works in the Child Welfare System tend to use two practice methods which are micro and macro practice. Micro practice is the most common kind of social work. In micro social work, the social work engages with individual families to solve problems or even family therapy. Many common examples Social Workers help are health care, social services, to help individuals to find treatment of being any victims because if they are left unhealed then their problems get worse and they tend to hurt others. Social Workers are trying to lend hand clients in society and have all the required tools to be successful once they are out of treatment.
Some Social Workers tend to use micro and macro together. They both ask open ended questions to show a better understanding of the client situation. The question it’s like can you describe the problem to me? By this question the client can explain the problem to the social work so he/she can get better solve to his/her situation.
Part II – The Social Work Field of Service
The Presenting Problem
            A presenting problem is the initial symptom for which a person seeks help from a therapist, doctor, psychiatrist, or other provider but in this case a social worker will help the the person not just buy seeking help but by knowing who needs what. According to Charles A. Williams (2011), “Foster youth in the United States typically range from the ages of 6 to 15; therefore, supporting from a positive adult model or mentor may prove useful in ensuring better outcomes for this particular population youth.” He says that by just helping kids who are victims of child abuse then it will benefit them by so much knowing that someone is there to help through the tough times.
           Through the tough times these kids develop while being abused the social workers do their best to mentor children and teens about their behavior problems. Charles A. William(2011) states that, “Specifically, they reported better problem-solving ability and fewer externalizing or behavior problems (Jent & Niec, 2009).This finding was also supported by parent reporting. The results were significant even after researchers controlled for the possible impact of mental health services, such as counseling. This could be particularly useful, as child welfare professionals consider supplemental programs and services for youth in therapeutic foster care placements.” This could all prove their social skills and their emotional development.
            Although social worker mentors the children to improve their social skills but children also tend to improve on their academic achievements such as school and getting good grades. Even though these children are in foster homes the social workers still ensure better academic outcomes for children and youth in foster care.
Barriers to Service
              In this field of service, there are many barriers to service. Children, Hunger and Poverty has a lot of barriers. For example, children who are in poverty around the nation feel left out because going to school with the same clothes everyday someone will bully them. Based on research Wiley Blackwell states that “Over 46million Americans are currently poor, and the poverty rate among Americans children is now 22%. Poverty is invisible to many” (Blackwell, 2013). This indeed is invisible to many because if it wasn’t people would do something about.
Americans call poverty the threats to a child’s health since 46.2 million (15%) live in poverty and that has been the largest number in 52 years. According to Wiley Blackwell, “Nationally, one in five children is living in poverty.” Because of the poverty children will face many difficulties when they get older to try to get out of poverty since paying off college debts is even harder for middle class.
The Individual and Environmental/Societal Causes of Problems.
            One alarming piece of data is that 28 percent of children who are victims of child abuse are between 1 and 3 years of age. Alarming information is that 30 percent who were abused as children will later abuse their children. “Children who experience child abuse and neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile, 28% more likely to be arrested as an adult, and 30% more likely to commit a violent crime” (Fact Sheet compiled by the Helping Hand Home for Children Development Department, October 2012). All these problems these children face late in their adulthood is all because being abused as children.
Expanding the Target Population
            According to foster care statistics 2014, there were 415,129 children in foster care in September 30, 2014. 46 percent were in nonrelative foster family homes, 29 percent were in relative foster family homes, 8 percent were in institution, 6 percent in group homes, 5 percent on trial home visits, 4 percent in pre-adoptive homes, 1 percent are runaways, and 1 percent in supervised independent living. Of these 415,129 foster children were 42 percent were White, 24 percent were Black or African American, 22 percent were Hispanic (any race), 10 percent were other race or multicultural and 3 percent were unknown or unable to be determined. Although these percentages indicate the ethnicities and race but the age of children usually get adopted are from ages newborn to 9 years of age. According to Helen Cahalane, the editor of Contemporary Issues in Child Welfare Practice states that “The racial/ethnic makeup of the USA has changed dramatically during the last decade, more dramatically than at any time during the twentieth century” ( Helen Cahalane, 2013,pg.164);ol. This means that more people of races has come to US. 
Values and Ethical Issues for Social Workers
            According to NASW (2008 revised) the code of ethics is intended to serve as a guide to the everyday professional conduct of social workers. This code will help the social workers in everyday situations. When a client visits a social worker with his/her problems, under the code of conduct he/she should not ever discuss their client’s situation with anyone because every little word the client says the social worker cannot discuss it with anyone under any circumstances.
The Income for Social Workers in this Field of Service
            To work for foster care agencies, an individual needs to have a 4-year bachelor’s degree from an accredited university in social work or in a related field, such as psychology or sociology. Although you need a bachelor’s degree to get a job, some prefer the social worker to have a master’s degree. According BLS report that in May of 2013, the median annual wage for child, family and school social workers was $42, 12.
Final Assessment of your Interest in the Field of Service
            After the research based on foster care and child abuse I am more interest than ever in pursuing in this field as a social worker. I want to make permanency for every child in all ages because finding a home that is safe and that solves the problems children develop when being abused at such young age. Although I was shocked by the percentage of children who are victims of child abuse, I thought that finding permanency for these children will at least make them forget of the horrible times.