P1

P1.
In this assignment i will explain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health & social care context. Then it will discuss the theories of communication. Finally it will assess the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in H&SC with reference to theories of communication.

Communication is a method in which at least two or more individuals are exchanging information by giving and receiving messages that also can be transmitted by speech, behaviour, visual, signals and writing. Effective communication and interaction is in the priority in health and social care workers because it helps them to be able to perform their work efficiently. For instance, care workers should have the capacity to use communication and interaction skills in order to be able to work effectively with colleagues they need to make clear and understandable for their patients who may be from another country, have other religion, and culture. Individuals with communication problems may be liable to not being able to communicate successfully with their care workers and that may affect their health care. Successful relationship is foundationed by good communication. The alternative context which communication can be explained is one to one, group, formal and informal communication.
One to one communication is when two people communicate with each other giving or receiving information or even express themselves which can be done face to face, through emails or letters and sign language. When the conversation takes place between two strangers or people who don’t know well each other like a GP and a new patient, it is important to have a friendly and positive atmosphere before start a talk or give information. The individual needs to feel calm and relaxed to speak to the other person the best way to help that individual is by being happy and calm and in this way the individual may feel more confident to speak to the person. Most of the times people are greeting by saying “Hello” or “Good Morning” after the person made a good atmosphere, can start the wanted conversation. once the conversation finished the person also need leave a good impression to the individual as good as in the beginning. A good way to finish a conversation is by saying “See you soon” or “Talk to you later” to show respect and appreciation.
In health and social care one-one is used all the time. For example, during an appointment with a doctor a patient will use one to one communication with the doctor in order for them to get their message across.

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Group communication is when more than two people are communicating verbal or non-verbal. Most of the times in every groups there will be one individual who will be quiet than the other people, this is happening most of the times when that person doesn’t feel involved on that group and afraid of the reaction of others, that they may not like the ideas that that individual may has. In this case the group need also have a good atmosphere as at one to one communication. There are many ways to make someone feel welcome in a group, starting with making humor which helps everyone to relaxed and be able to share ideas and thoughts to other group members.
Communication between colleagues is very important in health and social care setting, as lack of communication may has a negative influence to other co-workers. Respecting and trusting is the key to success in work environment also by respecting co-workers it will be easier for them to respect service users as well. For instance, a new professional for example doctor, wants to meet a colleague, they need to make a good impression to each other as it is the first time that they meet, old colleague need to be welcoming and show a friendly behaviour in order to make the new person feel more confident so he will show the same friendly and respectful behaviour. Care professionals as doctors or nurses have their own language which calls language community and they have their own words, phrases, as well as expectations. Professionals realize that translation is needed for their language from technical to everyday when they are working with patients, so every individual understand all the information that is needed and nothing is missing.
Formal communication is usually used when a professional for example health or social care worker speaks to a patient. Formal communication is required by health and social care setting to give an appropriate message to service user. For example, it is expected from most of the people to be greeted in formal way “Good morning” or “How can I help you?” which shows respect to the person next to them.
Informal communication is a use of jargon or slang which means for example in one country a word has one definition but somewhere else it means something different and it isn’t found in dictionary. It is mostly use in groups of family, friends or colleagues in work. However, it is mostly common for young people using informal language in order to
texting or face to face. In health and social care settings it is inappropriate to use phones to text because it will make the patient to feel upset and that he/she is not going get the support and care that need. On the other hand, there may be some exceptions, for example, informal communication can be used by a professional who would like to make a patient feel more confident and relaxed or make him understand more easily.
Forms of communications:
Verbal communication: This is the main form of communication between people talking, shouting and everything that we can do with our voice only. For instance, yelling, whispering or talking on the phone.
Non – verbal communication takes place with body language, with expression of emotions which are many for example surprise, fear happiness or sadness because they are the same everywhere, movements, meanings or even with the eyes. For instance, Gesture with hands or arms which mostly we do without thinking for example, waving our hand or pointing, use of sign, writing, touch of contact.

SIGN LANGUAGE
Sign language is a visual language that Deaf people use and it includes hand shapes, facial expression, gestures and body language
BRAILLE
BLIND PEOPLE
COMMUNICATION PASSPORT
The Theories of Communication P2
Argyle’s Communication Cycle 406336689535
Michael Argyle was a social psychologist whose research and development was theories about human communication and interpersonal interaction. He was convinced that interpersonal communication was the same as learning how to drive a car. His theory is a communication theory that he came in 1972 which works in a communication cycle, that has 6 stages.
The first stage is when an idea occurs
This is when someone thinks of an idea to talk to the individual about such as a specific subject and have thought about the subject which they want to talk them about. An example of this in a health and social care setting may be attending an appointment to a doctor. The first stage of the communication cycle may be the person’s idea that he doesn’t feel well. The GP may check his records to see what was wrong with the patient last time.

Then the second stage is message coded this is when someone thinks how he is going to explain his thought this can happen even through speaking or sign language. While in the second stage the individual takes action and books an appointment with his doctor in order to see if he can help him. The GP will think about how he is going to communicate with patient.

The third stage is sending the message to the other individual, by speaking to them, write it down or in another way of communication.In the third stage the individual will see the doctor and communicate with him the way he can for example, by speaking or writing to send the information he needs. The GP will start the communication in the way he decided that is required.

The next one, the fourth stage is when the individual receives your message in any way it was sent to them. In the fourth stage will be when the doctor listens to the patient to understand his message. In this stage the GP will take time to listen to what the patient is saying and should not be rushed. He might take some notes as well.

The fifth stage is when the individual “translate”, decode in order to understand the message that received. while in the fifth stage will be the received message that needs to be decoded by the doctor so he fully understands the message to help the individual. Again the GP will need time to think about what he is just been told so he will decide what he is going to do.

Last but not least the sixth stage is when the person fully understands which isn’t happening all the time at first. The final sixth stage is when the message has been fully understood and that means that the doctor understood and he will help the patient as he can get better soon. The GP will advice the patient on what to do or give them prescription if they need medication. This can only happen if all the six stages have been followed correctly, so the GP knows what is wrong with the patient and can help them.

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performing

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Tuckman’s Stages of Group Interaction
Bruce Tuckman was a respected psychologist born in 1938. He identified four stages of group development in 1965 which are
Forming, storming, norming and performing

The first stage is the forming stage which represents the first time when the group members started to come together and share information about each other, they are avoiding any kind of conflicts because everyone tries to focus on being accepted and this cause their group work not being done, but in reality they don’t try to finish any work. The forming stage include understanding the way group is going to be organized and which member will be responsible for what.
The second stage of the group development it calls storming stage where conflicts and competitions are taking place at a large extent because it’s like put together members which would never work together and that may cause conflicts also most important issues surrounding the group such as responsibilities and they role with the group members. All members are in need for an explanation on areas such as guidance, control, rules, responsibilities and structures. Questions like those must be answered so that the group can move on to the next stage.
Once the group received the information they needed they can move to the third stage which is norming. As they became a unit. They have established to remain focused on their purpose, by relaying and trusting each other. The Leadership is open to all members and all of them have the feeling of security as they are adapting each other needs.
At its top the group is moving to fourth stage of development which is known as performing stage which is being marked by top efficiency. Group members are united, faithful and carrying in all members is seen allowing to take important decisions and that means they became an effective group.

P3, P4
In this task I am going to explain the factors that may influence communication and interpersonal interactions in health and social care environments and also I am going to explain the strategies that may be used in health and social care environments to overcome those barriers to effective communication and interpersonal interactions.
Barriers to Communicating and how to Overcome them
Environmental barrier to communication may be anything around us that prevents the effectiveness of communication. This could be many things including the noise and the lightening.

Lightening
When the lightening is very poor or very bright it will be very difficult to communicate effectively
For example, if a deaf person is with his interpreter and the doctor in a room where the lightening is very poor it will be very difficult for the interpreter and the patient to communicate with gestures and facial expression because it will be too dark and they may have ineffective communication and give wrong information to the doctor which may cause to the doctor to do his job poorly because he will not understand the correct information that the patient wants to send him. Also it may leave the patient with bad impression about the health services.
Overcoming the lightening barrier
The best way to overcome such a barrier would be to change the room that they are communicating in order to have effective communication and leave the patient with good impression.

Noise
Noise is physical barrier and the most common in communication. Trying to communicate in loud environment is mostly ineffective, not to mention nearly impossible. Even if someone manage to speak with background noise, no one would be able to understand much or have a good conversation. It may be any random disturbance which reduces or confuses the clearness of a message. Physical barriers are closely related to noise as they can obstruct the communication transmission process. Some examples of noise barriers which can occur during the communication process may be people who physically interrupt. Also there may occur interruption by technology for example, ringing phone new email, fax. Moreover, mostly the summer when the windows are open external noises may occur for example, traffic noises from outside the building or conversations taking place in or near to the room. Furthermore, internal noise like psychological distracting thought and loss of concentration even when is an older person. The level of noise is important because, quite background noise can be filtered out easily than a loud noise.
An example in health and social care would be a doctor who tries to communicate with his patient and inform him about his results but the patient has concentration problems and their communication is ineffective while the patient can’t understand effectively the information that he receives from the doctor because there are many distractions in the room like an open window with many cars passing.

Dealing with noise
To successfully overcome the noise barrier a placement would need to adapt the environment. By Adapting the environment which is a way to overcome an environmental barrier, is meant to establish the source of noise. For example, once it has been identified steps can be taken to overcome it. In environment which is physical barrier it would be good to eliminate as many distractions as possible. For instance, switching of the mobile phone and other technologies. Also by closing the doors and windows and set up Air Conditioners in order not to need to open windows to avoid distractions. Noises can come from anywhere. Those people who want to communicate and want their messages to be clearly received they will do everything like removing as much environmental noise as possible.

Language/culture
Language is a barrier to communication when people don’t understand each other while they speak in different languages. Also when the cultures are different the languages and the meanings are different as well for example in some countries some gestures may be rude but on other countries they mean that you respect the other person.

Overcoming language barrier
In order to overcome the language barrier, it is very important to a patient to be able to communicate effectively with the doctor. In order to communicate effectively it will be necessary to hire a translator or interpreter to help the health and social care worker with the service user to communicate effectively. In some cases, when they haven’t hired an interpreter or translator, they can communicate with them by phone in order to take care of the patients needs. The interpreter/translator will make sure that the care worker’s message will be send accurate and the setting user will receive the needed message. Also that will build trust between the interpreter and the patient because the patient will feel confident that the interpreter translates everything correctly and that the patient will understand every information that he will want to know. Another reason why they may trust more the interpreters is for example, when an interpreter is being hired they always ask if the patient want a female or a male interpreter and the patients have the right to choose, many women from different countries and cultures may not feel confident with male interpreters and that will cause them poor care.
Interpreters are people who translate a language to another and the opposite in spoken language or sign language as well while the translators are those who translate a language to another in written way. Interpreters are being used in order to help patients from other countries to communicate with the doctors in order to get the care they need and give the right information to the care worker to avoid any mistake. Another way to overcome it may be if the care worker uses body language or gestures.

For example, if a doctor speaks only English but the patient only Greek, the interpreter will speak both languages in order to communicate with both of them and give the needed information to each other so the information will be delivered correctly because it is important to the doctor understand correctly the patient’s problems to help that person correctly because if the doctor makes mistake it may cause serious problems.

Jargon
Jargon is the language that professional use, for example, doctors use jargon that are understandable from their colleagues but it’s difficult to all people to understand the terminologies. It also may be the use of Acronyms which means the use of initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word from the care workers in health and social care settings. For example, a patient has come to the hospital and asks the receptionist where he needs to go for his appointment because it’s his first time on that hospital and the receptionist may say to the patient is on ‘DH’ which means Department of Health but the patient may not understand where is that DH and what it means and he may loss his appointment because he didn’t found the right department.

Another example may be a doctor who asks an older patient, if he takes medicine for his ‘BP’ which mean Blood Pressure but the old patient may not understand that and feel uncomfortable and answer in wrong way and if he takes medicine for his blood pressure, the doctor may not give him the right prescription and that will cause problems to the old patient.

Overcoming the jargon
Care workers can avoid jargon and talk in simple languages when they are communicating with patients in order to make for everyone clear what they are saying or meaning, to avoid any misunderstanding from the patients. On the other hand, if the care workers use jargon then they need to make sure that they don’t use that much jargon to the patients and if they do they need to make sure that the patients have understood the meaning of the jargons.
Psychological /emotional barrier
Psychology and Emotions can influence a person’s communication. Many emotions can affect the communication process such as anger, nervousness, confusion. Thus, every human being has a unique mind which is composed of varied emotions, beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and thoughts that facilitate or different forms of communication. It may also affect a person’s thinking about a service because when someone is under of pressure of feelings then he may not listen properly to whatever is said and might say things offending the sender, who may be a care worker.
For example, a man who is afraid of doctors, prefers to search on the internet about what illness he may has, and by searching he thinks that he has something very serious. He decides to go to the doctor. When the doctor says to that patient that he doesn’t have something serious. He because of the feeling of fear doesn’t believe to the doctor and believes more on what he has read on the internet
Another example may be a man who has some problems with stress and can’t overcome it by himself but he is afraid of going to a psychologist because doesn’t feel confident about what other people may think, for example, that he is weak
Overcoming psychological/ emotional barrier
Sensory impaired
Sensory impaired is when a person loses a sense for example it may be loss of smell, hearing, sight or taste
Hearing impaired Reference list:
BTEC book
http://www.oneeastmidlands.org.uk/healthjargonbusterhttp://servicesguide.reading.gov.uk/kb5/reading/directory/advice.page?id=yjdblhTe_x0