JIMMA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES PERCEIVED EFFECT OF SATELLITE TELEVISION PROGRAMS ON TEENAGERS SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

JIMMA UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES
PERCEIVED EFFECT OF SATELLITE TELEVISION PROGRAMS ON TEENAGERS SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: THE CASE OF ASSOSA CITY, ETHIOPIA.

BY: YAREGAL WORKU ALBORO
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES
PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN BROADCAST JOURNALISM

JIMMA, ETHIOPIA
September 2018
JIMMA UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES
PERCEIVED EFFECT OF SATELLITE TELEVISION PROGRAMS ON TEENAGERS SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: THE CASE OF ASSOSA CITY, ETHIOPIA.

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES. PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN BROADCAST JOURNALISM

BY: YAREGAL WORKU ALBORO
ADIVISOR: GETACHOW TILAHUN (PHD)
CO- ADIVISOR: WONDMAGENE AYELE (PHD)
JIMMA, ETHIOPIA
September 2018
DECLARATIONI, the undersigned, declare that the thesis comprises my own work. In compliance with internationally accepted practices, I have duly acknowledged and referenced all materials used in this work. I understand that non-adherence to the principles of academic honesty and integrity misrepresentation/fabrication of any idea/data/source will constitute sufficient ground for disciplinary action by the University and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have not been properly cited or acknowledged.

YAREGAL WORKU __________________
SignatureStudent’s nameDate
The thesis proposal titled “Effect of satellite television programs at teenagers’ social behavior in cause of Assosa city. Ethiopia” by Yaregal Worku Alboro is submitted for defense with my approval as his research advisor.
GETACHOW TILAHUN (PHD)
WONDMAGENE AYELE (PHD) __________________
SignatureAdvisor’s nameDate
Approval committee
___________________ ______________
Chairman, Department Graduate Committee Signature
______________ _______________
External examiner Signature
_____________ ______________
Internal examiner Signature

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTTo finalize my study and bring this thesis into reality, I have been support by many peoples. It is a lovely phase that I have now the opportunity to convey my thanks for all of them.
I must take a moment to extend many thanks to my advisor, Dr. Getachow Tilahuen, for the invaluable guidance and the academic freedom he has generously provided. He has made himself available at the time of my need and shared his intellectual wisdom with his friendly approach. Additionally, my appreciation and heartfelt thanks go to my co -advisor Dr.Wondmagene Ayele,
I cannot forget the encouragement and support my family have given me over the years to pursue my interest. In general, I am deeply grateful for the support I got from different people who saw my success as their own. Although I cannot mention all by name because they are so many, wherever they are, I wish them all the best.

Finally, my heartfelt thank to my wife Nardos Gashu for her diligent support for my career development and above all for her sustained and insightful support throughout my study process.

AcronymsFGD Focus Group Discussion
IN in-depth interview
KANA television Channel engaged on rebroadcasting programs from developed counters’ UNICEF united nation international children’s emergency fund
SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Science
TV television (‘vision at a distance’)

ABSTRACT
There are many things that make change on teenager’s social behavior, among those things television is considered as teen’s brain shaping mechanism Satellite televisions are among technologies that teens exposed to on their daily basis, viewing of satellite television programs have effects on teenager’s social behavior, but the nature and the existence of the effect whether positively or negatively have not been studied in context of Assosa city. Thus, this study sought to explore the effects of satellite television programs on teenager’s social behavior at Assosa city. Following this, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed for the study where survey questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion were used as tools of data gathering methods. Survey questionnaire was administered to 128 teenagers selected through cluster and purposive technique, hence it could be taken as principal tool for data collection besides, in-depth interview was held with 11 individuals, parents, experts, officials to whom the study is duly considering and focus group discussion was held with eight teens. Knowingly, or unknowingly, the opinions of teenagers and parents show that awareness on effect of satellite television programs at social behavior of viewers were existed. Respondents from concerned governmental and nongovernmental organizations were comparatively have the aware on the effect of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior, but to diminish negative effects the task of parents and concerned organizations’ were irrelevant. As a result, finding of the study shows that viewing of satellite television programs have effect on teenagers social behaviors’, it is proved that there is modeling of teenagers from satellite television programs- satellite television programs from developed nations or media institutions from Ethiopia who engaged on rebroadcasting of those programs were preferred by teen viewers than native television program productions.

Key words: teenager, social behavior, satellite television, Assosa city.

Table of Contents
Titles Page number
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATIONiACKNOWLEDGEMENTiiAcronymsiiiABSTRACTivTable of ContentsvList of tables and chartvii TOC o “1-3” h z u CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc515183349 h 11.2 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc515183350 h 31.3 Objective of the Study PAGEREF _Toc515183351 h 41.3.1 Specific Objectives: PAGEREF _Toc515183352 h 41.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc515183353 h 51.5 Scope of the Research PAGEREF _Toc515183354 h 51.6 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc515183355 h 5
1.7 Limitation of the Study PAGEREF _Toc515183357 h 61.8 Organization of the Thesis PAGEREF _Toc515183358 h 6 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Role of Media PAGEREF _Toc515183361 h 72.2 Globalization and Media PAGEREF _Toc515183362 h 82.3 Television and Children PAGEREF _Toc515183363 h 102.4 Effect of Television and Children’s Social Behavior PAGEREF _Toc515183364 h 122.5 Television and Parental Intervention PAGEREF _Toc515183365 h 132.6 Media Effects Theories PAGEREF _Toc515183366 h 142.6.1 Uses and Gratification PAGEREF _Toc515183367 h 142.6.1.1 Uses and Dependency Model PAGEREF _Toc515183368 h 152.6.2 Cultivation Theory PAGEREF _Toc515183369 h 162.6.3 Social Learning Theory PAGEREF _Toc515183370 h 18 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1, Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches PAGEREF _Toc515183373 h 213.2 Tools of Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc515183374 h 223.2.1 Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc515183375 h 223.2.2 In-Depth Interviews PAGEREF _Toc515183376 h 223.2.3 Focused Group Discussion PAGEREF _Toc515183377 h 233.3 Sampling Method PAGEREF _Toc515183378 h 243.4 Data Analysis Techniques PAGEREF _Toc515183379 h 25 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION
4.1 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc515183382 h 264.1.1 Demographic Profile of respondents’ PAGEREF _Toc515183383 h 264.1.2 Satellite Television Programs’ Viewing Hours of Teenagers PAGEREF _Toc515183384 h 274.1.3 Satellite television programs preference of teenagers PAGEREF _Toc515183385 h 284.1.4, reason of viewing satellite television programs PAGEREF _Toc515183386 h 344.1.5 Opinion on Effects of satellite television programs PAGEREF _Toc515183387 h 354.1.6 Opinion of respondents on the Effect of satellite television on social interactions PAGEREF _Toc515183388 h 364.1.7, effect satellite television programs on teenagers social practice PAGEREF _Toc515183389 h 434.1.8 Learn from satellite television programs PAGEREF _Toc515183390 h 474.1.9 Satellite television program viewing habits of teenagers PAGEREF _Toc515183391 h 484.2 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc515183392 h 504.2.1 Awareness on effect of viewing satellite television PAGEREF _Toc515183393 h 504.2.2. Effects of viewing satellite television programs on social behaviors PAGEREF _Toc515183394 h 524.2.3, program preference and reason of viewing PAGEREF _Toc515183395 h 544.2.4 Viewing habit of satellite television programs PAGEREF _Toc515183396 h 564.2.5 Opinion of families and concerned organizations to diminish negative effects PAGEREF _Toc515183397 h 564.3. Discussion PAGEREF _Toc515183398 h 58
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc515183401 h 636.2. Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc515183402 h 65 Reference PAGEREF _Toc515183403 h 67 AppendixAppendix, A Questionnaire for Teenagers PAGEREF _Toc515183405 h 71Appendix B Interview Guide For parents PAGEREF _Toc515183406 h 83Appendix C Interview Guide For experts PAGEREF _Toc515183407 h 83Appendix D, Interview Guide for Concerned Individuals from different organizations PAGEREF _Toc515183408 h 84Appendix E, Guide FOR FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc515183409 h 84Appendix F Focus Group Discussant (FGD) PAGEREF _Toc515183410 h 85Appendix G List of Interviewees for the Study PAGEREF _Toc515183411 h 85 List of tables and chart TOC o “1-3″ h z u
Table 1.1 Genders of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc515185463 h 26Table 1.2, age profile of respondents’ PAGEREF _Toc515185464 h 26Table 1.3 Districts/Kebeles of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc515185465 h 27Table 2.1 satellite television program viewing hours on school days PAGEREF _Toc515185467 h 27Table 2.2 satellite television program viewing hours on weekend days PAGEREF _Toc515185468 h 28Table 3.1 age * news * sex Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185470 h 28Table 3.2 sex * age * documentary Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185471 h 29Table, 3.3 sex * age * family programs Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185472 h 29Table, 3.4 sex * age * police programs Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185473 h 30Table, 3.5 sex * age * sport Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185474 h 30Table, 3.6 sex * age * music programs Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185475 h 31Table, 3.7 sex * age * comedy programs Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185476 h 31Table, 3.8 sex * age * fighting Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185477 h 32Table, 3.9 sex * age * horror Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185478 h 32Table, 3.10 sex * age * reality shows Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185479 h 33Table, 3.11 sex * age * drama Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185480 h 33Table 4.1 reason of viewing PAGEREF _Toc515185482 h 34Table, 5.1 believe on effect of satellite television programs PAGEREF _Toc515185484 h 35Table 5.2 opinion of respondents’ on manner of the effect PAGEREF _Toc515185485 h 35Table 6.1 effect on interaction with family members PAGEREF _Toc515185487 h 36Table 6.2 interaction with neighbors or friends PAGEREF _Toc515185488 h 37Table 6.3 interactions with relatives PAGEREF _Toc515185489 h 38Table 6.4 meeting anyone PAGEREF _Toc515185490 h 39Table 6.6 discussions with family members PAGEREF _Toc515185491 h 40Table 6.7 Issues of discussion with friends* sex *age Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185492 h 41Table 6.8 Issues of quarrel * sex * age Cross tabulation PAGEREF _Toc515185493 h 42Table 7.1 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 13 PAGEREF _Toc515185495 h 43Table 7.3 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 14 PAGEREF _Toc515185496 h 44Table 7.4 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 15 PAGEREF _Toc515185497 h 45Table 7.5 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 16 PAGEREF _Toc515185498 h 45Table 7.6 effect on social practice on teenagers based on gender PAGEREF _Toc515185499 h 46
Table 8.1 what teens learn from satellite television programs PAGEREF _Toc515185501 h 47Table 9.1 people teens like most to watch with the satellite television programs PAGEREF _Toc515185503 h 48Table 9.2 who select satellite television programs for teenagers most PAGEREF _Toc515185504 h 48Table 9.3 while view the first family member to turn on the television set most PAGEREF _Toc515185505 h 49Table 9.4 the last family member to turn off the television set after viewing PAGEREF _Toc515185506 h 49Chart 9.1 satellite television channels that targeted teens installed by families in home PAGEREF _Toc515185507 h 50
CHAPTER ONE1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the StudyThere are many things that make change on teenager’s social behavior in the environment where they grow up, among those things satellite television is considered as teen’s brain shaping mechanism. It has been said that satellite televisions have effects on teenagers’ social behavior, but the nature and the existence of the effect whether positively or negatively have not been studied in the context of Assosa city. Thus, this study wanted to explore the effects of satellite television programs on teenager’s social behavior at Assosa city.
Television has a great role in the lives of children and has effect in their lives, this is because of the ‘enormous power of television’ and the ‘inherent vulnerability of children” (Gunter and McAleer, 1997, p165). However, the effect that watching television results on viewers depends on the way the medium is consumed. Television might be destructive or constructive in the social and intellectual life of the child. It can provide children with a breadth of experiences, not all of which can in any way be construed as bad. Indeed, television can bring to children knowledge and other personal benefits which may be unavailable to them through any other source (Ibid).

Article 17 of the United Nations Convention for the Rights of the Child (CRC) states that “governments that have ratified the convention be bound to ensure the child’s access to information and materials especially aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral wellbeing and physical and mental health from a diversity of national and international sources”. Based on this, governments of those countries who accepted the ratification should encourage developing guidelines for the protection of the child from information that harm children.
Beside the obligation of the government, parents should provide their children access of media and needs to regulating and monitoring the use of media to prevent the negative effect by focusing on the positive ones. Research on parental television monitoring indicates that parents can reduce the negative effects of media exposure on children and contribute to the development of its positive effect by actively involving in giving guidance in their children’s viewing (Nathasanson, 2001).

In Ethiopia, television is the least accessible type of mass media in contrast to the press and radio. However, it is the most appealing type of mass media to most people (Tsega and Abebe, 2000). Nowadays globalization penetrates cultural and social boarders around the world and simultaneously strengths smaller regions and feelings of social identity. Political and social power is taking new dimensions. Cultural awareness and misunderstandings are growing (Dilalew, 2008). Because of urbanization, satellite televisions are easily accessed by residents of Assosa city and have an effect on viewers especially on teenagers.1.2 Statement of the ProblemMany studies have been conducted to observe the impact of television on viewers, among few of them are in Ethiopia, (Bukhari, 2002; Malik, 2003; Naseem, 2001; Emrakeb, 2005; Dilalew, 2008; Dereje, 2009 Rahwa 2011). Findings of the previous researches concluded that television does have some direct or indirect effects on viewers.
The existence of satellite television leads viewers to depend on foreign based satellite television programs; consequently, social behavior of viewers may be affected. The effect of consuming global media are researched massively, Schiller (1996) confirms ‘importing programs is importing lifestyles and exposure to foreign television programs may transform the values”. According to Feilitzen and Bucht (2001), the ever increasing presence of electronic and digitalized media is accompanied by hopes and fears. As a result, they argue that “satellite television has aroused expectations of greater freedom of choice and equal access to information for all, but also fear of standardization, more violent entertainment, advertising, pornography and discriminating portrayals of gender, social groups, cultures and nations” (2001, p.27).
technology always has positive or negative impact on users, consuming of global media in general satellite television programs in particular has effect on viewers’ social behavior, it was not well researched in the context of Ethiopia, hence the study explore the effects of importing and consuming satellite television programs on teenagers social behavior at Assosa city. according to Nyamnjoh (2002), African cultures are marginalized by the streamlined information and entertainment menu served by global media conglomerates, the bulk of African children are only spared by the fact that global availability, but global availability is not synonymous with global affordability.

Teenagers are less capable than adults on cognitive control of impulsive behavior. In contrast to social processing, which undergoes relatively sudden changes around the time of puberty; cognitive capacities supporting efficient self-regulation mature in a gradual, linear pattern over the course of adolescence; In parallel with structural brain changes, planned problem solving, flexible rule use, impulse control and future orientation occur during adolescence (Steinberg, 2008).

The researcher was interested to study viewings of satellite television programs effect on teenagers’ social behavior, family and social interaction patterns and to cheek if personal appearance and lifestyle of teens like dressing up, hairstyle ornament, make up and posture were associated with satellite television program characters. scholars stat that viewing habit of television programs and program preference of viewers have influence on effect of watching television programs to have on viewers’, thus the study wanted to see satellite television program viewing habits and satellite television program preferences of teenagers at Assosa city.
1.3 Objective of the StudyThe study explores the perceived effects of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior by finding out opinions of teenagers, parents and concerned individuals at Assosa city.1.3.1 Specific Objectives:To find out the opinion of teenagers, parents, experts and concerned individuals on effect of satellite televisions.
To know satellite television program preference of teens and effect on social behavior in relation with their age categories and gender.

To explore how satellite television programs affect teenagers’ social behavior,
To see if awareness of teenagers regards to the effect of satellite television programs varies based on their age level,
To find out the satellite television program viewing hour and habits of teenagers.

1.4 Research QuestionsThe study has aimed to answer the following research questions:
How do teenagers and parents understand the effect of viewing television?
How does viewing of satellite television programs affect teenagers’ social behaviors?
Which programs are preferred by teenagers and why (reasons of viewing)?
How do teens and their family members view television programs (viewing habit)?
What is the role of families, experts and concerned individuals to diminish the negative effects and to focus on positive ones?
1.5 Scope of the ResearchThis study was delimited on teenagers at Assosa city and effect of viewing satellite television on social behavior. The researcher explored the effect of satellite television program on teenager’s social behavior at Assosa city, focus on teenagers from age 13-16 years old only. Teen respondents was taken from selected schools; students from grade seven up to grade ten (primary grade seventh and grade eighth and secondary school grade ninth and grade tenth students). The reason to keep other teen age groups out of the study was that they are comparatively considered as youth and/or they will join the youth age group after two or less years.

1.6 Significance of the StudyThere are only few studies that have been conducted in the area of effect of television consumption in Ethiopia, and the finding of this study will benefit mainly parents, teenager focused organizations, policy makers and program implementers, as well as, media institutions, government and nongovernmental organizations that are involved in child matters will get supplementing explanatory facts and recommendations from the findings of this study.
Therefore, this study will help to better understand teenagers and their interaction with media messages and proofs the possible effect of their encounter with satellite television programs and this will help child focused policy makers and program implementers to better identify the needs and challenges of teenagers especially in relation to television and social behavior. Based on findings of the study, parents of teenagers could better understand the effect of television and decide on their teens’ television viewing habits. It cloud also serve as a reference to subsequent research works in the area of this field.

1.7 Limitation of the StudyThis study was some constraints. The time to be taken to investigate such topic was not enough. While there are many age groups, the focus was made only on teenagers. Investigating several media outlets widely for an extended period of time could give deeper understanding of the problem, but because of resource and time constraints the study focused on satellite televisions and their effect on social behaviors.

1.8 Organization of the ThesisThe thesis has five chapters. Chapter one discusses background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, significance, scope and limitations. Chapter Two contains the review of related literature. Chapter Three contains brief description of the research methods that were used for the study. Chapter Four has embraced analysis and discussion of findings. Finally, Chapter Five draw conclusions and offers recommendation.

CHAPTER TWO2. LITERATURE REVIEWTelevision is a medium of information, entertainment and education in general. Literatures on television state that viewing of television has effects on viewers’ social behaviors. In this chapter the researcher review related literature and formulate theoretical frameworks pertaining to effect of satellite television on teenagers’ social behavior.
2.1 The Role of MediaToday media has become almost as necessary as food and clothing. It is true that media is playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society; it’s a mirror of the society. Its duty is to inform, educate and entertain the people. It helps us to know what is going on around the world. It put its life in danger during attacks or natural disasters, just to inform us of the situation. It is partly because of that awareness is spreading in the society. It is the media that shape our lives. Our lives would be incomplete without the media (Paterson, 1997).
Media have also the watchdog role in political democracy. If it plays its role honestly, it will be a great force in building the nation but nowadays media has become a commercialized sector eying only for news that is hot and sells. Instead of giving important information and educative programs, all that one gets on television is sensational portrayal of all news stories, their only goal being gaining television rating points (Tomlinson, 2004).
According to (Kyla Boyse 2010), viewing of television programs have positive and negative side, television can be entertaining, educating and can open up new worlds for children it giving them a chance to travel the globe, learn about different cultures, and gain exposure to ideas they may never encounter in their own community, also television productions can have a positive effect on children behavior, television programs with positive role models can influence viewers to make positive lifestyle changes. However, the reverse can also be true:  children are likely to learn things from television that parents do not want them to learn. Television can affect kids’ health, behavior and family life in negative ways. 
Viewers entertain, educate and informed through television programs irrespective of their age and sex but the level differs based on viewers’ level of education. Studies of mass communication are based on the premises that media has significant effect in every society. However there is little agreement on the nature and extent of these assumed effects, the nature and extent of effect various on types of media, programs and audiences. (Mcquail, 2003), argues that media effects take various forms. We choose what movies are based on what we see in advertisement or in newspaper. We dress in accordance to the weather broadcasts that means our buying habits are shaped through media. Teachers teach, government governs and religious leaders preach but media totally changes the lifestyle of people.
2.2 Globalization and MediaOn the book entitled “The End of Television”, Jean-Louis Missika specifies that the known and recognized television will disappear in its current form due to the complex meaning diversity resulting from current technologies and their novel media. According to the author, the current television is divided into program bundles, distributed to the ultra-thematic channels, reduced to the optional video requests, integrated with mobile services and broadcasted over Internet with all principal specifications. In this context, it is both everywhere and nowhere; moreover, media organizations are on the way to convergence. The current life comes into existence using images dictated by the media and it is moved to images: “More images, less television” (Missika, 2006, cited by Funda Erzurum, 2013).

According to Sen (1993) because of fiber optics and satellites technologies, it is hard to isolate oneself from sounds and images from the cultural impact of west. If the global culture is the domination of one culture over the other or replacing one culture by the other culture, it is possible to say there is less scope of development to be a truly global culture which could include interaction, assimilation, exchange of ideas, artistic and scientific cross fertilization. At present there is no clear evidence on a global culture. Contrarily, evidence suggests that the third world people are changing their own music, art, language and customers more into American pop culture. The prevalence is more apparent in urban areas and among the elite of the third world countries but still the majority is in rural areas. Also the consumption of American products will more likely continue to expand the gap of cultural globalization between the rich and poor urban cultures and the rural cultures.
The study conducted by Sen (1993), to understand the influence of satellite television channels on the lives of people living in Lahore found that, the socio-cultural and religious thinking of the people was under the influence of foreign cultural values, satellite channels were influencing the language, fashion, food, architect and social behavior of the viewers; there was an impact of the satellite channels on the style of living of the people living in Lahore and Pakistani mass media was under the influence of satellite programming. The study affirmed that consumers of satellite television channels from developing nations like Ethiopians are under the influence of satellite television program owners and producers (developed nations) culture; the influence is shown on the developing nation consumers’ daily activity.
A research by Eashwer (1994) on the impact of cable television on women at a very basic level in terms of activities, time management and interaction with family members and the outside world revealed that 16 out of 30 women spent over 4 hours a day watching cable television and 10 of them spent 2 to 3 hours a day. The researcher reported that the major activities affected are:
Exposure to other media and reading habits
Interaction with children, husband, other family members, friends and neighbors and
Cooking and other household work
Bryanc (1990) found that average individual in Britain today gives more time to mass communication in particular to television than to general reading or part time education. Personal interests and relationships are thus fed up with what media provides and it is altogether acceptable that the attitude of mass media should be taken in with materials.
Rahwa (2011) proved that the greater the exposure to satellite television the greater the effect on the lives of youth in Addis Ababa and implied that there is an association between satellite television viewing and effects on viewers. The study claimed that this relationship in some cases can change life patterns or mould personalities, it is examined by classify viewers based on their viewing hour, in this study the researcher saw the effect of satellite television in general without classification teens with viewing hour, instead viewers age category and gender was used to know the effect on social behavior.
The reviewed literatures deals on scope, impact of television on education, information and social interactions, level of viewing and its impact on viewers. The focus of those studies was women and youths. In this study the researcher explored the effect of satellite television programs on social behavior of teenagers at Assosa city by getting the opinion of teenagers, parents and concerned individuals.
2.3 Television and ChildrenAccording to United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989, a child means “every human being below the age of 18 years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier” (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2005, p.37).
Keyes and Buckingham (1999, p.5) define children as a ‘special’ group, with particular characteristics, needs and vulnerabilities that set them apart from adults. Ideas about childhood are frequently used to justify controversial decisions about social control, about the distribution of resources and about the use of public space. Until now childhood is not fixed or given, either culturally or historically; it is natural. On the contrary, there is a constant struggle over its meaning, a struggle which arguably has become much more intense in recent years, as the boundaries between children, youth and adults in many societies have begun to blur.
Markowitz (1985, p.242) observes that “television thrusts children into a complex adult world and it provides the impetus for children to ask the meanings of actions and words they would not yet have heard or read about without television”. This is the reason why today adults often surprised on understanding ability of modern children have become. The effect that television programs, especially, cartoons have on children can be either negative or positive. Positively, television cartoon is something that families can watch together and laugh at; it provides a medium of family bonding because some cartoons such as Tom and Jerry are ageless and humorous to any age group. Also, investigations by the American Pediatrics Association have led to the recognition that entertainment television has become a major teaching agent and, therefore, plays a widely unrecognized but strong influence on the development of children (Muss, 1999).

Negatively, it is argued that children who watch television are less likely to participate in more rewarding activities such as sports or reading. In fact, some sicknesses such as obesity have been associated with addiction to television viewing. Also television cartoons have been seen to create stereotypes with its selective presentation of characters and stories given in the program, child viewers got a false image of the world through television productions (Bourne & Ekstrand, 1982). A study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation in 2003 found that nearly half (47 percent) of parents with children between the ages of four and six age report that their children have imitated aggressive behaviors from television programs (Rideout, Vandewater & Wartella, 2003, p.8).

Also, children remember more of actions when they see it on television than when they hear it on radio because visual images help memory. But their thinking becomes more imaginative when they listen to the radio. Psychologists fear that children who are rose on television “may have more information but be less imaginative and be less verbally precise and less mentally active than earlier generations raised with radio” (Wade & Travis, 1993, p.65). 2.4 Effect of Television and Children’s Social BehaviorHartup (1965, p.122), “Social behavior consists of activity elicited by stimuli emanating from people or activity which, in itself, possesses stimulus value for people”. According to Olusola.k (2014) Social behavior is a term used to describe the general conduct revealed by individuals within a society. It is basically a response to characters judged by a person’s peer group as acceptable or involves avoiding behavior that is characterized as unacceptable. This type of human behavior is primarily used to determine how individuals interact with one another and within a group or society. Children’s social behavior is a totality of all the interactions that a child engages in ranging from his/her conduct to diction, dress sense and even preferences. It also means the way in which a person reacts to a set of conditions.
A more technical definition of social behavior is that given by Wartella ; Robb (2007, p.42) as cited by Olusola.k (2014), Cognitive behavior refers to the ability to judge and reason effectively and having a perception of surroundings. Children’s cognitive ability is not as developed as that of the adults; this has implication on the meaning that they make out of the things they watch on television. The age of the child is another factor that differentiates how television impacts on the child.
2.5 Television and Parental InterventionTelevision provides information, education and entertainment to audiences. But everything that children watch on television does not contribute to their development in a good and positive way. It is commonly held that television viewing does more harm than good (Mares, 1996). Children are easily attracted by the characters they watch on television thereby striving to emulate with them and in the process acquiring certain values, attitudes or rules from them (Gunter & McAleer, 1997).

Boyse 2010, recommended parents to think about what role they want television to play in their family by considering children’s television viewing, because there have been thousands of studies on the subject. Researchers have studied how television affects kids’ sleep, weight, grades, behavior, and more. It is worth looking at what the research says when deciding on their families’ television viewing. Spending time on watching television can take time away from healthy activities like active play outside with friends, eating dinner together as a family, or reading, television also takes time away from participating in sports, music, art or other activities that require practice to become skillful. Social interaction is critical to a baby’s healthy development (Ibid).
Parents are mostly concerned about the inappropriate content in television, which is undeniably justified considering the significant increase in inappropriate television contents (Evans et al., 2011). Scholars confirmed that in most cases the concern is that usually translates into action concerning television program contents than rules on limiting the amount of time children spend by watching television (Nathanson, 2001; Vanderwater et al., 2005). Given the evidence on the potential negative effects of television viewing on children, parents need to assume responsibility for controlling their children viewing habit just as they would for any other potentially harmful activity. Furthermore, parents need to be cautious when it comes to children’s programs. Parents usually assume that children programs are safe and child-friendly. It is this assumption that makes parents comfortable enough to allow their children spend hours watching television unsupervised.

Lull’s, rule based interpretative approach to television states that television related interpersonal activities in the home are shown to be rule governed while audience members and sources of media programming at the societal level are revealed to engage in rule based interaction that perpetuates selected ideologies and their accompanying lifestyle models (Lull.1976).

2.6 Media Effects TheoriesKaye (2000) states “A good theory helps to predict what will happen in future by giving practical insight into how the phenomenon being studied. As a communication technology, satellite television has a great acceptance and is being used extensively in Assosa. The core purpose of this study was to get the opinions on the effect of satellite television programs on the social behavior of teen viewers at Assosa city. To understand and explain the effect of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior, communication theories, mainly media effects theories are used. Hence, Uses and Gratification Theory, Cultivation Theory and Social Learning Theory were used; these theories are discussed below in relation to the study in brief.
2.6.1 Uses and GratificationUses and Gratifications Theory takes a more humanistic approach to looking at media usage. Blumler and Katz (1994) believe that there is not merely one way that the mass uses media. Instead, they believe as there are many reasons for using media. According to the theory, media consumers have a free will to decide how they will use the media and how it will affect them. Blumler and Katz believe that media consumers can choose the influence media has on them as well as the idea that users choose media alternatives merely as a mean. Uses and Gratifications theory is the optimist’s view of media. The theory takes out the possibility that media can have an unconscious influence on audience lives and on how they view the world. The idea that simply use of media to satisfy a given need does not seem to fully recognize the power of media in today’s society.

The theorists suggest that media users play an active role in choosing and using media. Users take an active part in the communication process and are goal oriented in their media usage. The theorists say that media users seek out source that best fulfills their needs. Uses and Gratifications Theory assumes that users have alternate choices to satisfy their needs (Griffin, 2000). Focus of this theory is that viewers attend, perceive and remember information that is pleasurable or that will in some way help them satisfy their needs.
(Mcquail, 2003) described the approach as a “functional orientation” which could account for the appeal of “escapist” media content. He named simple functions of media as providing relaxation, stimulating the imagination, providing vicarious interactions and providing a common ground for social intercourse. Variation in motives for attending to media was also studied as variables in effect research.

Uses and gratifications theory study the ways the society consumes media. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. This study aimed explore the motives for teenagers’ satellite television program consumption and the consequences associated with use of that satellite television program by studying how and why teens watch the preferred programs.  Literatures identified a number of common motives for media consumption. These include relaxation, social interaction, entertainment, arousal, escape, and a host of interpersonal and social needs.

2.6.1.1 Uses and Dependency ModelUses and Dependency Model (Rubin, 1994) proposes that certain elements in media system, system itself, structure of society and individual differences that result in highly personal motives causes people to use and depend upon media. Media dependency may lead to media effect in itself. As of this model media effect may depends on media consumption, the consumption intern depends on personal motive.
The motives behind the usage of media had been examined through uses and gratification theory, by using this theory researchers have sought to find why people watch television programs and why they influenced by their preferred program rather than other programs. Researcher wants to see why teens use and depend on satellite television programs. According to (Rahwa, 2011), people depend upon the media to fulfill certain needs such as vicarious experience and escapism or involvement or interaction.
The greater the dependency upon a medium the greater the likelihood that medium will have effects upon the viewer. Miller & Reese (1982) studied political effects and found that these effects were more likely to occur among those who relied more upon the medium rather than those who did not rely upon the medium.
Finn (1992) described passive and active audiences’ based on the motive to use media. Motives to use media fill under passive or active headings. Proactive or passive media use means as the name indicates the usage of media by the audience in passive sense, in this perspective audiences’ turn on television simply because it is there just to “see what’s on”. They are not actively seeking information, entertainment or anything in particular. This does not mean that they will not be entertained or learn something. It only suggests that they did not begin the viewing experience with a particular proactive motive in mind. In case of active motive, media user actively seeks something from media based upon their wishes, needs and motives, audiences’ watch television programs in order to learn more about a specific subject of interest, watching a certain movie for the purpose of being entertained. In this study the researcher intended to see the motives of teenagers to view satellite television programs.

2.6.2 Cultivation TheoryCultivation Theory is significant in mass communication. It states that a heavy viewer exposed to more violence content is eventually affected by the Mean World Syndrome, an idea that the world is worse than it actually is (Gerbner and Gross 1976). It showed that a prolonged exposure to television will affect the concept of social realities of the viewer. In general, the relation between viewing and various types of judgments is modest but reliable (Shrum et al. 2011).

The Cultivation Theory asserts that heavy viewers’ attitudes are cultivated primarily by what they watch on television. Gerbner views this television world as “not a window on or reflection of the world, but a world in itself” (Mcquail, 2003). Cultivation Theory, in its most basic form, suggests that television is responsible for shaping or ‘cultivating’ viewers’ conceptions of social reality. The combined effect of massive television exposure by viewers over time subtly shapes the perception of social reality for individuals and eventually for the culture as a whole. Hence, cultivation theory is used in research to study media effects.

George Gerbner stands as the pioneer of the Cultivation Theory, the theory states that the more people watch television, the more likely they hold a view of reality that is closer to television’s portrayal of reality. Gerbner begins developing cultivation as a structural piece for the long term examination of public messages in media influence and understanding, his objectives are not with “information, education, persuasion, and the like, or with any kind of direct communication effect”. More accurately, his concern remains with “the collective context within which, and in response to which, different individuals and group selections and interpretations of messages take place”. He argues that the mass media cultivate attitudes and values which are already present in culture. Media maintains and propagates these values amongst members of a culture, The Cultivation Theory got its start with the cultivation hypothesis, created by George Gerbner, which attempts to understand how “heavy exposure to cultural imagery will shape a viewer’s concept of reality” (Pierce, 2007).

Gerbner, argues that television has become the central cultural arm of the American society. “Television set has become a key member of the family, the one who tells most of the stories most of the time.” Gerbner and his associates (Gerbner etal, 1994) have written that there are two types of television viewers: heavy and light viewers. For heavy viewers, television virtually monopolizes and subsumes other sources of information, ideas and consciousness. Gerbner says that the effect of all this exposure to the same messages produces what he calls cultivation or the teaching of a common worldview, common roles and common values. Gerbner presents research supporting “Cultivation Theory” that is based on comparison between heavy and light television viewers. Gerbner analyzed answers to question posted in surveys and found that heavy and light television viewers typically give different answers. Further, heavy television viewers often give answers that are closer to the way the world is portrayed on television which is synthetic world.

Cultivation theorists argue that heavy viewing leads viewers to have more homogeneous or convergent opinions than light viewers. The cultivation effect of television viewing is one of the ‘leveling’ or ‘homogenizing’ opinion. Gross considered that ‘television is a cultural arm of the established industrial television Viewing Incidental Information Social Reality Inference Skills, social structures, Learning and Construction other experiences Capacity, focusing strategies, attention, involvement order and as such serves primarily to maintain, stabilize and reinforce rather than to alter, threaten or weaken conventional beliefs and behaviors’ (Boyd etal, 2002).

By putting the above literatures in consideration the researcher explore the effect that viewing of satellite television program resulted on social behaviors of teenagers. Cultivation theory, states that the more people watch television, the more likely they hold a view of reality that is closer to television’s portrayal of reality.
2.6.3 Social Learning TheorySocial learning theory emphasizes the “reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral and environmental determinants” of human behavior (Bandura, 1977, p.198). It stresses the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. According to Bandura (1977), Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action cited by Olusola.k,.Social learning occurred through four main stages of imitation, namely: close contact, imitation of superiors, understanding of concepts, and role model behavior. As explained by Baran and Davis (2003, p.196), the component processes underlying observational learning are attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. Attention includes modeled events (distinctiveness, affective valence, complexity, prevalence, functional value) and observer characteristics (sensory capacities, arousal level, and perceptual set, past reinforcement). Retention involves symbolic coding, cognitive or generalization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal. Motor Reproduction, includes physical capabilities, self-observation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback. And Motivation involves external, vicarious and self-reinforcement (Olusola.k, 2017).

The Social Learning Theory explains how environment influences the behavior of an individual. DeFleur ; Sandra (1989) stated “despite general in nature, Social Learning Theory is particularly relevant to study the impact of mass communication because the description and portrayal of social life is a frequent subject in media contents”. The most common examples of social learning situations are television commercials.

Factors such as family, school and environment are factors which influence individual’s process of socialization. Direct experience and participation are important parameters which shape the child’s impressions of the perceived structure of their environment. However, these forms of experience are usually limited to the immediate environment. Mass media, particularly television, plays a crucial role in bringing the outside world into homes. As an important institution, mass media enters the socialization process of an individual. In social learning, new patterns of behaviors can be gained through direct observing of others’ behavior; teenagers might learn new patterns of behaviors from television through direct observation.
Satellite television commercials programs suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using particular products will make us popular and win the admiration of attractive people. Depending upon convince or motivation viewers may involve in, model the behavior shown in the commercial, and buy the product being advertised.

Modeling is also useful for describing the application of general Social Learning theory which explains how new behaviors are acquired by people from media portrayals. Actions of characters in the audio-visual media can serve as a model for others to imitate, an individual observes a character, identifies him/her as a model and remembers actions of model and performs them when confronted with similar circumstances (DeFleur and Sandra, 1989). Literature has shown that viewers acquire attitudes, emotional responses and new styles of conduct from media, especially from films and television (Bandura, 1977). The theory clearly establishes that the media can serve as agents in the socialization process.

Standing from the aforementioned literatures, the researcher argued that this theory appropriately addresses how satellite television programs shape the social behavior of teenagers positively or negatively, social learning theory sates viewers of television engaged in a form social learning through television and portrayed as of television characters.
From the literature reviewed so far, one could deduce that the viewing of television has both positive and negative effects on teen viewers. However, the researcher could not find any study conducted on the effects of satellite television on children or teenagers social behavior in the context of Asssosa city as well as in Ethiopia as a whole.

CHAPTER THREE: 3. METHODOLOGYThis study aimed to find out the opinions of teenagers, parents and concerned individuals at Assosa city. Mixed method (qualitative and quantitative approaches) was used to get accurate and reliable data. Data gathered by employing three instruments: questionnaire, in-depth interview and focus group discussion was analyzed.
3.1, Quantitative and Qualitative ApproachesThe study employed a mix of quantitative and qualitative approaches; it includes the elements of both approaches, data collection involves both the collection of quantitative and qualitative data. The main purpose of using mixed methods starts from recognizing that each method has a weakness, thus using multiple methods is advantageous; it is used to triangulate the outcomes by converging quantitative and qualitative methods.
The quantitative research approach refers to empirical inquiry that to collect, analyze, and display data in numerical rather than narrative form (Given, 2008). Quantitatively the study used survey questionnaire to gathered and present the opinion of teenagers.

Qualitative researcher’s endeavor to investigate human attitudes and behaviors within their natural setting is their desire “to preserve the form and content of human behavior and to analyze its qualities, rather than subject it to mathematical or other formula transformations” (Lindlof, 1995: 21). In order to get and triangulate the opinions of teenagers, parents and concerned individuals on the effects of satellite television programs on teenagers social behavior at Assosa city the researcher used qualitative methods, i.e., in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.3.2 Tools of Data Collection3.2.1 QuestionnairesClose ended questionnaire was used. Questionnaires allow to find out individual opinions of teenagers in did the researcher get the general picture of the research problems. According to (Hansen, ; et al. 1998, p. 225) survey questionnaire help the researcher to provide empirical data, collected from a population of respondents on a number of topics or issue, respondents are not simply restricted, this makes the researchers to find out individual opinions, attitudes, behavior towards a whole range of topics and issues.
Respondents of the questionnaires were teenagers inhabited in Assosa city. For the sake of manageability of data, cost and time, two schools were purposively taken as the sampling frame, From among the students enrolled in one class from each selected four grades i.e. grade seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth was taken as sample based on cluster sampling by considering the teenagers’ age, sex and district where they live, total population of the study was 189 teenagers from selected schools, according to Yamane (1967), n = N / 1 + N (e )2 ,where n is the sample size, N is the population size, and e is the level of precision, to get the sample size from the population, n = 189 / 1 + 189 (0.0025, the result shows n = 128, so the sample size of the study was 128,
Among the total population of teenagers, 128 teenagers were taken as the sample, by using cluster and purposive sampling methods, i.e., 16 teenagers from each class and 32 teens from each age group, and each distract responds questionnaires. This helps the researcher to get opinions of teens and to understand the effect of satellite television programs on the teenagers’ social behavior.
3.2.2 In-Depth InterviewThe researcher employ interview in a semi-structured format, in which the interviewees were, encouraged to speak freely about the effect and changes on the social behavior which caused by viewing of satellite television programs. The interview questions help the researcher to deeply understand and verify the effect.

The in-depth interview was conducted with parents regard to the effect of satellite television programs on their teenagers’ social behavior; six parents were selected purposively from Assosa city. This helped the researcher to get opinions of parents regards to effect of satellite television programs on teen viewers’ social behavior, viewing habits of teenagers and parents’ awareness towards the effect of satellite television programs.

Also in-depth interviews were held with experts and concerned individuals from governmental and nongovernmental organizations in Assosa city. The aim of the interviews was to get deep information regards to the changes that they observed at Assosa city and to explain the effect that was caused by viewing satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behaviors. In addition, opinions of experts and concerned individuals was aimed to find how experts and concerned individuals perceive effects of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior in relation to the respondents’ professions and careers. Experts from Assosa city administration office of the women and children’s affairs and school representative from Assosa city, government officials from concerned organizations and experts of nongovernmental organizations engaged on child issues responded the interview.
3.2.3 Focus Group DiscussionFocus groups are typically defined as bringing together a small group of people to participate in a carefully planned discussion on a defined topic. The aim of the technique is to make use of group interaction to produce data and insights; because the method creates the opportunity for participants to talk naturally, this method is used to generating much richer and more sensitive type of data.

Particularly focused group discussion is so close to the natural setting that one can generate meanings and interpretation in relation to the use of media and its effect. Hansen et al. (1998, p 257) emphasized on the importance of focused group discussion in studying the relationship between the media and audience for examining the dynamics of what experiential knowledge and frames of interpretation audiences bring to bear in their use of media content and the role media use has in their everyday lives.
To get detailed information and thick description, teenagers those who responded to the questionnaires were also selected for focus group discussion; purposively selected eight teenagers were involved in the discussions.
3.3 Sampling MethodThe researcher applied both probability (cluster) and non-probability (Purposive) sampling techniques to collect the data. Wimmer and Dominick (1993) define population as “group or class of subjects, variables, concepts or phenomena.” Hence the total population of this study comprised teen satellite television viewers from aged 13 up to 16 and attending schools at Assosa city.

Cluster and purposive sampling was employed in this study; cluster sampling method was used to survey questionnaire to obtain teenagers based on their age, gender and district, the easiest way for the researcher to get the targeted cluster was using schools as sampling frame and the rational for the selection of four grades was to get age clusters of teenagers, since formal education begins at the age of seven It was expected that grade seven students to be 13 years old, grade eight 14 years old, grade nine 15 years old and grade ten students to be 16 years old. The reasons to keep other teen age groups out of the study were those teenagers above the selected age groups are comparatively considered as youth and/or they would join the youth age group after two or less years.

Purposive sampling method was employed in this study to get teenagers from different distracts of Assosa city those who have access to satellite television programs in their home; moreover, to give equal chance for the age groups and sex category, purposive sampling method was used with the extension of cluster sampling method when teenagers responded the survey questionnaires.

According to (Buddenbaum & Novak 2001) purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling method and it can come in handy when the researcher has a specific reason to select the subject of the study. Purposive sampling is a technique of selection used when a researcher has some special reason for choosing the subjects. They also mention that the goal of purposive sampling is to choose subjects who can be expected to provide useful information. In this study parents, experts and concerned individuals from governmental and nongovernmental organizations were purposively selected to respond the interview.
Participants for the focused group discussions were also purposively selected from among the teenagers those who responded the questionnaires by considering their age group and sex categories.
3.4 Data Analysis TechniquesAnalysis was made based on appropriate quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Quantitative data was entered into computer by using SPSS software program. Coding and analyzing of data was carried out by using this software package; the data was presented in the form of percentage, average and frequency. In addition, the qualitative information (collected via in-depth interviews and FGDs) is analyzed in a way to understand deeply the result of the quantitative data.
CHAPTER FOUR4. DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSIONThis chapter presents the results of the data obtained from respondents. It consists of two parts. Part I deals with analysis of the quantitative data that was obtained through questionnaires to get the opinions of teenagers. Based on the objectives of the study, the analysis was made by use descriptive statistics, i.e., frequency tables, percents, chart, and cross tabulation are used. Part II deals with the qualitative data which was obtained through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. To analyze the qualitative data, qualitative (textual) analysis utilized the power of words.
4.1 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSISThe quantitative analyses was made based on the response obtained from questionnaire, the analysis comprised two parts: demographic questions and main body questions
4.1.1 Demographic Profile of respondents’ Table 1.1 Genders of the respondents
Gender Frequency Percent
male 64 50%
Female 64 50%
Total 128 100%
The above table shows respondents’ gender; as it shows 50% male and 50% female respondents were recruited by using purposive and cluster methods of sampling. 128 teenagers were selected to respond the questionnaire, and out of 128 respondents 64 teens were males and 64 teens were females.
Table 1.2, age profile of respondents’No Age categories Frequency Percent
1 Age 13 32 25%
2 Age 14 32 25%
3 Age 15 32 25%
4 Age 16 32 25%
Total 128 100%
To achieve the stated objectives and to get the opinions of teenagers, the researcher used teenagers from age 13 up to 16, based on their age cluster 32 teens, which means 25% from each age group reacted to the questionnaire.
Table 1.3 Districts/Kebeles of the respondentsNo Residence Frequency Percent
1 01 kebele32 25%
2 02 kebele32 25%
3 03 kebele32 25%
4 04 kebele32 25%
Total 128 100%
Assosa city administration has four city kebele/district administrations by considering their residential cluster 32 teens or 25% of teens are selected from each kebele’s administration. To make out the proportion of teens based on the total number of teens in their residential kebeles, the concerned individuals and organizations did not know the total amount of teenagers in each kebele and even in the city administration. This made the researcher to give equal chance for all of the kebeles.
4.1.2 Satellite Television Programs’ Viewing Hours of Teenagers Table 2.1 satellite television program viewing hours on school days
No Viewing hours Frequency Percent
1 None 12 9.4%
2 Less than an hour 34 26.6%
3 One to two hours 43 33.6%
4 Two to three hours 22 17.2%
5 Over three hours 17 13.3%
Total 128 100%
A according to the response shown in the above table, 9.4% of respondents were none viewers, 26.6% were viewing for less than an hour, 33.6% of respondents were viewers of one to two hours, 17.2% of respondents were viewers for two to three hours and 13.3% of respondents were viewers for over three hours on school days. Based on the respondents’ responses, majority of the teen respondents view satellite television programs; they are taken as one of their daily activities.

Table 2.2 satellite television program viewing hours on weekend daysNo Viewing hours Frequency Percent
1 None 3 2.3%
2 Less than an hour 19 14.8%
3 One to two hours 34 26.6%
4 Two to three hours 17 13.3%
5 Over three hours 55 43%
Total 128 100%
On weekend days, only 2.3% of the respondents are non viewers, and 14.8% of respondents were viewers for less than an hour, 26.6% of respondents were viewers for one to two hours, 13.3% of respondents were viewers for two to three hours and 43% of respondents were viewers for over three hours. Thus, teenagers view satellite television programs for over three hours more on weekend days than on school days.
4.1.3 Satellite television programs preference of teenagersAccording to the case process summery report all respondents react on news programs , documentary programs, family programs, police programs, sport programs, music programs, comedy programs, fighting programs, horror programs and drama programs of satellite television but one respondent did not react on reality show satellite television programs it is taken as missing.
Table 3.1 age * news * sex Cross tabulationNews Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 11.1% 15.3% 9.7% 13.9% 50.0%
female 11.1% 11.1% 13.9% 13.9% 50.0%
Total 22.2% 26.4% 23.6% 27.8% 100.0%
not watch Sex male 14.3% 10.7% 16.1% 8.9% 50.0%
female 14.3% 12.5% 10.7% 12.5% 50.0%
Total 28.6% 23.2% 26.8% 21.4% 100.0%
Based on the age, sex and news program preference cross tabulation, from all the respondents, 22.2% of age 13 preferred news programs; among this 11.1% were males and 11.1% were females. Thus, satellite television news program preference of 13 years old respondents’ response based on sex category was equivalent. From 26.4% respondents of age 14 teenagers, 15.3% were males and 11.1% were females; here more males preferred satellite television news program than their female counterparts. Teen respondents of age 15 satellite news program preference were 23.6%; among these 9.7% were males and 13.9% were females. In age 15 female teens prefer news program than male teens. 27.8% of 16 years old respondents preferred satellite news program, and the proportion based on sex is equal.
Table 3.2 sex * age * documentary Cross tabulationDocumentary Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 7.8% 11.8% 19.6% 9.8% 49.0%
female 15.7% 13.7% 5.9% 15.7% 51.0%
Total 23.5% 25.5% 25.5% 25.5% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 15.6% 14.3% 7.8% 13.0% 50.6%
female 10.4% 10.4% 16.9% 11.7% 49.4%
Total 26.0% 24.7% 24.7% 24.7% 100.0%
Sex, age and satellite television documentary program cross tabulation shows that 23.5% of age 13 respondents, 25.5% of age 14 respondents, 25.5% of age 15 respondents and 25.5% of age 16 respondents preferred satellite television documentary programs; among the respondents, 49% males and 51% females preferred satellite television documentary programs.
Table, 3.3 sex * age * family programs Cross tabulationFamily programs Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 12.2% 8.9% 15.6% 8.9% 45.6%
female 15.6% 11.1% 13.3% 14.4% 54.4%
Total 27.8% 20.0% 28.9% 23.3% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 13.2% 26.3% 5.3% 18.4% 63.2%
female 5.3% 10.5% 10.5% 10.5% 36.8%
Total 18.4% 36.8% 15.8% 28.9% 100.0%
45.6% of male respondents and 54.4% of female respondents preferred to watch satellite television family programs. When it is distributed to respondents’ age categories, 27.8% of 13 years old, 20% of 14 years old, 28.9% of 15 years old and 23.3% of 16 years old preferred to watch satellite television family programs. According to table 3.4, more female teenagers watched satellite television family programs than male teenagers.
Table, 3.4 sex * age * police programs Cross tabulationPolice programs Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 16.9% 12.3% 12.3% 9.2% 50.8%
female 10.8% 9.2% 10.8% 18.5% 49.2%
Total 27.7% 21.5% 23.1% 27.7% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 7.9% 14.3% 12.7% 14.3% 49.2%
female 14.3% 14.3% 14.3% 7.9% 50.8%
Total 22.2% 28.6% 27.0% 22.2% 100.0%
Police program preference of the respondents indicates that 50.8% of female respondents and 49.2% male respondents preferred satellite television police programs; also 27.7% of age 13, 21.5% of age 14, 23.1% of age 15 and 27.7% of age 16 preferred to watch satellite television police programs.

Table, 3.5 sex * age * sport Cross tabulationSport Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 11.1% 17.3% 17.3% 13.6% 59.3%
female 11.1% 6.2% 14.8% 8.6% 40.7%
Total 22.2% 23.5% 32.1% 22.2% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 14.9% 6.4% 4.3% 8.5% 34.0%
female 14.9% 21.3% 8.5% 21.3% 66.0%
Total 29.8% 27.7% 12.8% 29.8% 100.0%
Teen respondents who preferred to watch satellite television sport programs from age 13,covers 22.2%, age 14, covers 23.5%, age 15, covers 32.1%, and age 16, covers 22.2%. Sport program preference sex proportion was 59.3% male and 40.7% female. Hence more males preferred satellite television sport program than females. Table, 3.6 sex * age * music programs Cross tabulationMusic programs Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 14.3% 7.6% 12.4% 10.5% 44.8%
female 13.3% 14.3% 14.3% 13.3% 55.2%
Total 27.6% 21.9% 26.7% 23.8% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 4.3% 39.1% 13.0% 17.4% 73.9%
female 8.7% 4.3% 13.0% 26.1%
Total 13.0% 39.1% 17.4% 30.4% 100.0%
Sex, age and music program cross tabulation shows 44.8% of male and 55.2% female respondents preferred to watch satellite television music programs; more females preferred music program than males. Also based on their age category, the data shows, 27.6% age 13, 21.9% age 14, 26.7% age 15 and 23.8% age 16 preferred to watch satellite television music programs.

Table, 3.7 sex * age * comedy programs Cross tabulationComedy programs Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 13.3% 9.5% 15.2% 11.4% 49.5%
female 13.3% 12.4% 9.5% 15.2% 50.5%
Total 26.7% 21.9% 24.8% 26.7% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 8.7% 30.4% 13.0% 52.2%
female 8.7% 8.7% 26.1% 4.3% 47.8%
Total 17.4% 39.1% 26.1% 17.4% 100.0%
Table 3.8 shows, 26.7% of the respondents of age 13, 21.9% of the respondents of age 14, 24.8% of the respondents of age 15 and 26.7% respondents of age 16 preferred to watch satellite television comedy programs; among the respondents, 50.5% were females and 49.5% were males.

Table, 3.8 sex * age * fighting Cross tabulationFighting Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex Male 10.6% 15.3% 16.5% 11.8% 54.1%
Female 14.1% 5.9% 11.8% 14.1% 45.9%
Total 24.7% 21.2% 28.2% 25.9% 100.0%
Not watch Sex Male 16.3% 9.3% 4.7% 11.6% 41.9%
Female 9.3% 23.3% 14.0% 11.6% 58.1%
Total 25.6% 32.6% 18.6% 23.3% 100.0%
Age, sex and satellite television fighting program cross tabulation indicates that 24.7% age 13, 21.2% age 14, 28.2% age 15 and 25.9% age 16 respondents prefer to watch satellite television comedy program, based on the response males prefer satellite television comedy programs than females.
Table, 3.9 sex * age * horror Cross tabulationHorror Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 10.0% 12.5% 16.2% 11.2% 50.0%
female 7.5% 11.2% 16.2% 15.0% 50.0%
Total 17.5% 23.8% 32.5% 26.2% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 16.7% 14.6% 6.2% 12.5% 50.0%
female 20.8% 12.5% 6.2% 10.4% 50.0%
Total 37.5% 27.1% 12.5% 22.9% 100.0%
Male and female respondents equally prefer satellite television hoarier program, respondents of 13 years old prefer 17.5%, respondents of age 14 prefer 23.8%, respondents of age 15 prefer 32.5% and respondents of age 16 prefer 26.2%.
Table, 3.10 sex * age * reality shows Cross tabulationReality shows Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 12.5% 9.4% 14.6% 11.5% 47.9%
female 13.5% 12.5% 13.5% 12.5% 52.1%
Total 26.0% 21.9% 28.1% 24.0% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 12.9% 25.8% 6.5% 12.9% 58.1%
female 9.7% 9.7% 6.5% 16.1% 41.9%
Total 22.6% 35.5% 12.9% 29.0% 100.0%
26%, 13 years old, 21.9%, 14 years old, 28.1%, 15 years old and 24%, 16 years old, respondents prefers satellite television reality shows, among respondents male, 47.9% and female,52.1%. Male respondents preferred less reality shows than female respondents.
Table, 3.11 sex * age * drama Cross tabulationDrama Age Total
13 14 15 16 Watch Sex male 10.6% 10.6% 14.4% 10.6% 46.2%
female 12.5% 12.5% 15.4% 13.5% 53.8%
Total 23.1% 23.1% 29.8% 24.0% 100.0%
Not watch Sex male 20.8% 25.0% 4.2% 16.7% 66.7%
female 12.5% 8.3% 12.5% 33.3%
Total 33.3% 33.3% 4.2% 29.2% 100.0%
From the total respondents, those who preferred satellite television drama program 53.8%, females and 46.2%, males prefer drama; based on the respondents’ age category, 23.1% teens of 13 years old, 23.1% teens of 14 years old, 29.8% teens of 15 years old, and 24% teens of 16 year old respondents preferred satellite television drama programs. Females preferred satellite television drama than males.
4.1.4, reason of viewing satellite television programsTable 4.1 reason of viewingage * sex * reason of viewing Cross tabulation
age For entertainment For information For education For nothing Total
13 16 5 11 0 32
14 17 7 6 2 32
15 6 13 9 4 32
16 20 3 9 0 32
Total 59 28 35 6 128
sex For entertainment For information For education For nothing Total
male 32 16 14 2 64
female 27 12 21 4 64
Total 59 28 35 6 128
The majority of respondents of age 13, view satellite television programs for the purpose of entertainment; from the total of 32 respondents of 13 years old, 16 of them view satellite television programs for entertainment purpose, 5 of them for information and 11 of them view for education. Again, 17 respondents from 32 teens of age 14, view satellite television programs for entertainment, 7 for information, 6 for education and 2 for nothing. Accordingly, from among the 32 age 15 respondents, 6 view for entertainments, 13 for information, 9 for education and 4 for nothing.
Overall, from the total (128) respondents, 59 of them view satellite television for the purpose of entertainment, and among these 32 were males and 27 females. 16 males and 12 females, totally 28 respondents view for the purpose of information, and out of 35 respondents, 14 males and 21 females view for the purpose of education and 6 of them (4 females and 2 males) undecided on the reason of viewing satellite television programs.
4.1.5 Opinion on Effects of satellite television programsTable, 5.1 believe on effect of satellite television programsFrequency Percent
Agree 53 41%
Disagree 40 31%
Undecided 35 27%
Total 128 100%
Out of the 128 respondents, 53 respondents (41%) agreed on the effect of viewing satellite television programs, 40 respondents (31%) disagreed and 35 respondents (27%) of the respondents undecided on the effect of viewing satellite television. Based on the response of the teenagers, it is possible to say the awareness of teenagers regard to the effect of satellite television is low.
Table 5.2 opinion of respondents’ on manner of the effectEffect Frequency Percent
Positively 34 26%
Negatively 7 5.5%
Both positively& negatively 30 23.4%
Undecided 49 38.3%
Total 120 93.8%
Missing 8 6.2%
Total 128 100%
26%, of respondents consider that viewing of satellite television programs has positive effect on viewers, 5.5% of the respondents believe it to have a negative effect; 23.4%, respondents believe in both positive and negative effects, 38.3% respondents undecided on the effect to have and eight respondents did not react at all; to the question.
4.1.6 Opinion of respondents towards the Effect of satellite television on social interactionseffect of viewing satellite television on teenagers social interaction case processing summary report shows all respondents react on effect on interaction with family, interaction with neighbors or friends and meeting anyone while watching their preferred satellite television programs but on effect of satellite television on discussing with family one respondent was not react on it, it is taken as missing.
Table 6.1 effect on interaction with family members1, age * interaction with family Cross tabulation
Interaction with family Total
increasing Decreasing Not changed undecided Age 13 5 7 14 6 32
14 9 3 14 6 32
15 14 4 12 2 32
16 9 7 11 5 32
Total 37 21 51 19 128
Based on the opinion of respondents in the above table, out of 32 respondents of age 13 respondents, 5 thought that viewing of satellite television programs increases interaction with family, but 7 respondents thought it decreases interaction; for 14 respondents, interaction would not change and six of them were undecided.

According to the age 14 respondents, 9 believed interaction with their family members’ increases with television viewing, 3 believed it would decrease, 14 said it would not change, and 6 respondents undecided.
From respondents of age 15, 14 respondents believed in the increment of interactions with their family members, 4 in the decrement, 12 said it would not change and two undecided. Nine respondents of age 16 responded that viewing of satellite television increased their interaction with their family members, 7 said it decreased, 11 said it did not change, and five undecided.

Out of 128 respondents, 37 respondents said interaction with their family members increased, 21 respondents said it decreased, 51 respondents said interaction with their family members did not change and 19 respondents undecided.
Based on the opinion of the respondents, for the majority of teen respondents, because of viewing satellite television programs, interaction with their family members was not changed; out of the 128, interaction increased for 51 respondents.

2. sex * interaction with family Cross tabulation
Interaction with family Total
Increasing Decreasing Not changed Undecided Sex male 14 13 25 12 64
female 23 8 26 7 64
Total 37 21 51 19 128
from total of 128 responses, for 14 males and 23 females (total 37) interaction with their family members increased because of viewing satellite television, while for 13 male and 8 female (total 21) respondents, interaction decreased, but for 25 male and 26 female (total 51) respondents, interaction was not changed due to satellite television viewing. Finally, a total of 19 respondents, 12 males and 7 females were undecided. Because of viewing of satellite television programs, females’ interaction with their family increased than that of males.
Table 6.2 interaction with neighbors or friends 1. Age * interaction with neighbors and friends Cross tabulation
Interaction with neighbors and friends Total
increasing Decreasing Not changed undecided Age 13 8 3 17 4 32
14 9 4 12 7 32
15 17 4 9 2 32
16 12 6 11 3 32
Total 46 17 49 16 128
According to table 6.3, from the total of 46 respondents whose interaction with neighbors and friends increased, based on age category, eight, from age 13, nine, age 14, 17, from age 15 and 12, from age 16. 17 respondents interaction decreased, and when it is distributed on age category from age 13, three respondents, from age 14, four respondents, from age 15, four respondents, and from age 16, six respondents said their interaction with friends and neighbors decreased.
49out of the 128 respondents believe their interaction with friends and neighbors unchanged, whereas 16 respondents out of 128 respondents undecided on the effect.
2, sex * interaction with neighbors and friends Cross tabulation
Interaction with neighbors or friends Total
increasing Decreasing Not changed undecided Sex male 19 10 25 10 64
female 27 7 24 6 64
Total 46 17 49 16 128
As could be seen in the above table, 46 respondents said their interaction with neighbors or friends increased because of viewing satellite television programs; of these 27 female teenagers. From the total of 17 responses on the decreasing interaction with neighbors and friends; 10 male teenagers’ responded on. Relatively similar number of male and female teenagers reacted on no change happened on their interactions with neighbors and friends.

Table 6.3 interactions with relatives1 age * interaction with relatives Cross tabulation
Interaction with relatives Total
increasing Decreasing Not changed undecided Age 13 7 6 16 3 32
14 5 6 14 7 32
15 11 4 15 2 32
16 11 6 14 1 32
Total 34 22 59 13 128
Out of 128 teen respondents, 34 teens from all age groups said, their interaction with relatives is increasing: seven from age 13 respondents, five from age 14 respondents, 11 from age 15 respondents and 11 from age 16 respondents. On the other hand, six from age 13, six from age 14, four from age 15 and six from age 16 totally 22 out of 128 respondents reacted as their interaction with relatives is decreasing. For 59 teen respondents their interaction with relatives is not changed and 13 respondents undecided on.
2, sex * interaction with relatives Cross tabulation
Interaction with relatives Total
increasing decreasing Not changed undecided Sex male 16 12 29 7 64
female 18 10 30 6 64
Total 34 22 59 13 128
For 16 male and 18 female teen respondents, because of viewing satellite television programs interaction with relatives increasing, but 12 male and 10 female responded as decreasing. For 29 male and 30 female respondents their interactions did not changed, and seven males and six females undecided on the effect.

Table 6.4 meeting anyoneage * meeting anyone Cross tabulation
Meeting anyone Total
increasing decreasing Not changed Undecided Age 13 6 13 7 6 32
14 3 17 8 4 32
15 2 15 9 6 32
16 9 10 11 2 32
Total 20 55 35 18 128
A total of 20 respondents out of the 128 respondents respond that meeting anyone increased while watching their preferable satellite television program; when it is distributed based on age category, six responded from age 13, three from age 14, two from age 15 and nine from age 16 response as increasing. 13 respondents from age 13, 17 from age 14, 15 from age 15 and nine from age 16, i.e. a total of 55 responded that while they watching their preferable satellite television program, the possibility for them to meet with anyone decreased. For 35 respondents, meeting anyone while watching satellite television program was not changed, and 18 respondents were undecided. For the majority of the respondents, their chance of meeting with people decreased while they watched their preferred satellite television programs.
sex * meeting any one Cross tabulation
Meeting anyone Total
increasing decreasing Not changed undecided Sex Male 8 27 21 8 64
female 12 28 14 10 64
Total 20 55 35 18 128
For 8 male and 12 female respondents, meeting with any one while watching their preferable satellite television program was increasing, whereas for 27 male and 28 female it was decreasing. For 21 male and 14 female respondents it did not change, and eight male and 10 female were undecided. Based on the responses of the teen respondents, meeting with anyone while watching their preferable satellite television programs was decreasing than increasing.
Table 6.6 discussions with family members1. age * discussing with family Cross tabulation
Discussing with family members Total
increasing decreasing Not changed undecided Age 13 12 6 9 5 32
14 13 8 8 3 32
15 16 5 8 2 31
16 13 6 12 1 32
Total 54 25 37 11 127
For 12 respondents of age 13, 13 respondents of age 14, 16 respondents of age 15 and 13 respondents of age 16 (i.e., for a total of 54 teen respondents) discussion with family members was increasing because of viewing satellite television programs. Out of 127 respondents, 25 teen respondents said discussion with their family members was decreasing; when it is distributed on the respondents’ age categories, six from age 13, eight from age 14, five from age 15 and six from age 16 responded discussion with family members decreased. Nine respondents of age 13, eight respondents of age 14, eight respondents of age 15 and 12 respondents of age 16 said discussion with their family members was not changed, but 11 respondents were undecided. Hence, because of the viewing of satellite television programs, teenagers’ discussion with their family is increasing.

2 sex * discussing with family members Cross tabulation
Discussing with family members Total
increasing decreasing Not changed undecided Sex Male 23 16 19 6 64
female 31 9 18 5 63
Total 54 25 37 11 127
The sex discussion with family members cross tabulation shows that because of viewing satellite television programs, discussion with family members increased for 31 female respondents and 23 male respondents, whereas it increased for 16 male and nine female respondents. For 19 male and 18 female respondents, discussion with their family members did not change due to satellite television viewing, and six male and five female respondents were undecided.
Table 6.7 Issues of discussion with friends* sex *age Cross tabulationSex Total
male female Issues raised during discussion with friends On satellite tv programs 24 24 48
On educational issues 33 35 68
On social issues 4 3 7
On political issues 3 2 5
Total 64 64 128
Age Total
13 14 15 16 Issues of discussion with friend On satellite tv programs 17 9 15 7 48
On educational issues 14 19 15 20 68
On social issues 1 2 1 3 7
On political issues 0 2 1 2 5
Total 32 32 32 32 128
48 out of 128 respondents (24 male and 24 female) discussed satellite television programs with their friends; 33 males and 35 females (totally 68) teen respondents discussed educational issues, four male and three female (totally seven) teen respondents discussed social issues, and five teens discussed political issues. From respondents of age 13, 17 respondents’ issues of discussion were satellite television programs, 14 were educational issues, one was social issues, and none of them was political issues. From respondents of age 14 nine respondents discussed satellite television programs, 19 discussed educational issues, two social issues and two political issues. From a total of 32 respondents of age 15, 15 respondents discussed satellite television programs, 15 educational issues, one social issue and one political issue. Accordingly, seven respondents of age 16 discussed satellite television programs, 20 discussed on educational issues, three social issues and two political issues. Based on the responses, one could conclude that next to educational issues, respondents discussed satellite television programs.
Table 6.8 Issues of quarrel * sex * age Cross tabulationSex Total
Male Female Issues of quarrel On satellite tv programs 29 27 56
On educational issues 21 28 49
On social issues 7 7 14
On political issues 3 2 5
On other issues 3 0 3
Total 63 64 127
Age Total
13 14 15 16 Issues of quarrel On satellite tv programs 14 11 16 15 56
On educational issues 14 12 10 13 49
On social issues 1 4 5 4 14
On political issues 2 2 1 0 5
On other issues 0 3 0 0 3
Total 31 32 32 32 127
Respondents quarreled more on satellite television programs than on others; out of 127 respondents, a total of 56, i.e., 29 male and 27 female teen respondents responded that they quarreled more on satellite television programs, 21 male and 28 female (totally 49) respondents quarreled on educational issues, five quarreled on political issues, and three quarreled due to0 other issues.

From a total 32 teen respondents of age 13, 14 respondents quarreled on satellite television programs, 14 on educational issues, one on social issues, two on political issues, none on other issues and one respondent did not respond to the question. From age 14 respondents, 11 respondents quarreled on satellite television, 12 on educational issues, four on social issues, two on political issues and three quarreled on other issues. Out of 32 respondents of age 15 teen respondents, 16 quarrels on satellite television programs, 10 respondents quarreled on educational issues, five on social issues and one on political issues. From respondents of age 16, 15 were on satellite television programs, 13 were on educational issues, four on social issues, Age 13 respondents quarrel equally on satellite television programs and educational issues, totally out of 128 respondents 56 teen respondents’ quarreled on satellite television programs.

4.1.7, effect satellite television programs on teenagers social practice
Table 7.1 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 13No Effect on social interaction Agree disagree Undecided
1 Consider satellite tv characters as role models 16 7 9
2 Dressing like characters of satellite tv programs 11 14 7
3 Dressing on satellite tv are preferable than local 16 10 6
4 Wear jewelry worn by characters of satellite tv 9 19 4
5 Talk in style resembling characters of satellite tv 9 18 5
6 Need to eat food that I saw on satellite television 16 9 7
7 Celebrating birthday like on satellite television 20 7 5
8 Prefer foreign foods than Ethiopian foods 7 20 5
As could be seen from the table, out of the 32 age 13 respondents, 16 considered satellite television program characters as their role models, 7 did not, and 9 were undecided. 11 liked to dress like satellite tv characters, 14 did not, and 7 were undecided. For 16 teen respondents, dressing styles of satellite television programs were more preferable than local dressing styles. From 32 respondents, nine liked to wear jewelry worn by characters of satellite television programs, 19 did not, and four were undecided. Nine admitted talking in styles resembling characters of satellite tv programs, and 16 respondents needed to eat foods that they saw on satellite television program. 20 respondents wanted to celebrate like those on satellite television programs on event of celebrating their birthdays. On the event of celebrating cultural and traditional days, seven teen respondents preferred foreign foods than Ethiopian foods.

Table 7.3 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 14No Effect on social interaction agree Disagree Undecided
1 consider satellite tv characters as role models 24 4 4
2 Dress like characters of satellite tv programs 6 24 2
3 Dressing on satellite tv are preferable than local 11 17 4
4 wear jewelry worn by characters of satellite tv 7 23 2
5 talk in style resembling characters of satellite tv 11 18 3
6 need to eat food that I saw on satellite television 20 10 2
7 Celebrating birthday like on satellite television 18 13 1
8 prefer foreign foods than Ethiopian foods 9 23 0
The majority of age 14 respondents considered satellite television characters as their role models; out of 32 teen respondents of age 14, 24 agreed, four disagreed and four undecided. 24 out of 32 disagreed with dressing like characters of satellite television programs, whereas 11 agreed, 17 disagreed and four were undecided regarding the preference of dressing style of characters on satellite television programs to local dressing style. Again, 23 respondents of age 14 disagreed on wearing jewelry worn by characters of satellite television programs, seven agreed and two undecided. 11 agreed, 18 disagreed and three undecided on resembling with the talking styles of characters of satellite television. From a total 32 teen respondents of age 14, 20 needed to eat food that they saw on satellite television programs. 18 teen respondents wanted to celebrate birthdays like those on satellite television programs. 23 respondents disagreed with the preference of foreign foods to Ethiopian foods on events of celebrating cultural and traditional days.
Table 7.4 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 15No Effect on social interaction agree disagree Undecided
1 consider satellite tv characters as role models 25 3 4
2 dress like characters of satellite tv programs 9 16 6
3 Dressing on satellite tv are preferable than local 13 19 0
4 wear jewelry worn by characters of satellite tv 8 10 14
5 talk in style resembling characters of satellite tv 14 14 4
6 need to eat food that I saw on satellite television 14 11 7
7 Celebrating birthday like on satellite television 14 13 5
8 prefer foreign foods than Ethiopian foods 15 16 1
25 teen respondents of age 15 considered satellite television program characters as role models. Out of 31 respondents nine agreed on dressing like characters of satellite television programs. For 13 respondents, dressing style of those on satellite television programs was more preferable than local styles of dressing. Eight out of 32 had worn jewelry worn by characters of satellite television programs.14 respondents talked in styles resembling characters of satellite television programs. 14 needed to eat food that they saw on satellite television programs. Finally, 15 respondents out of 32 agreed on the preference of foreign foods than Ethiopian foods on events of celebrating cultural and traditional days.
Table 7.5 effect on social practice on teenagers of age 16No Effect on social interaction agree Disagree Undecided
1 consider satellite tv characters as role models 21 7 4
2 dress like characters of satellite tv programs 13 16 3
3 Dressing on satellite tv are preferable than local 12 18 2
4 wear jewelry worn by characters of satellite tv 10 16 6
5 talk in style resembling characters of satellite tv 9 21 2
6 need to eat food that I saw on satellite television 15 14 3
7 Celebrating birthday like on satellite television 8 20 4
8 prefer foreign foods than Ethiopian foods 6 25 1
21 out of 32 age 16 teen respondents agreed on considering satellite television program characters as role models; 13 out of 31 agreed on dressing like characters of satellite television,12 said dressing styles of satellite television program characters is more preferable than local dressing styles; 10 respondents worn jewelry worn by characters of satellite television programs; nine talked in styles resembling characters of satellite television programs; 15 needed to eat food that they saw on satellite television programs; eight teen respondents out of 32 wanted to celebrate their birthdays like those on satellite television programs, and six preferred foreign foods than Ethiopian foods.
Table 7.6 effect on social practice on teenagers based on genderNo Effect on social interaction Agree Disagree Undecided
M F Total M F Total M F Total
1 consider satellite tv characters as role models 42 44 86 11 10 21 11 10 21
2 dress like characters of satellite tv programs 23 16 39 30 40 70 10 8 18
3 Dressing on satellite tv are preferable than local 30 22 52 29 35 64 5 7 12
4 wear jewelry worn by characters of satellite tv 15 19 34 32 36 68 17 9 26
5 talk in style resembling characters of satellite tv 20 23 43 36 35 71 8 6 14
6 need to eat food that I saw on satellite tv 34 31 65 20 24 44 10 9 19
7 Celebrating birthday like on satellite television 25 35 60 28 25 53 11 4 15
8 prefer foreign foods than Ethiopian foods 18 19 37 42 42 84 4 3 7
44 females and 42 males (total of 86) teen respondents out of 128 respondents considered satellite television programs characters as role models; a total of 39 (23 male and 16 female) liked to formally dress up like different characters of satellite televisions programs. 30 male and 22 female (totally 52) teen respondents considered dressing style on satellite television programs as more preferable than local dressing styles. Out of 34 teen respondents who agreed on wearing jewelry worn by different characters of satellite television, 15 of them were males and 19 of them were females.

20 males and 23 females from a total of 43 teen respondents agreed on talking in style resembling characters of satellite television. 34 males and 31 females (total 65) teen respondents needed to eat food that they saw on satellite television programs. 25 males and 35 female (total 60) teen respondents preferred celebrating their birthdays like what they saw on satellite television. 18 male and19 female (total 37) teen respondents preferred foreign foods than Ethiopian foods on the event of celebrating cultural and traditional days.

4.1.8 Learn from satellite television programsTable 8.1 what teens learn from satellite television programsWhat teens learn from viewing satellite television programs Agree Disagree Undecided Total
frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %
Speak well 81 63.3 32 25 15 11.7 128 100
Team Work 82 64.1 32 25 12 9.4 126 98.4
Dressing style 83 64.8 37 28.9 8 6.2 128 100
Creativity 84 65.6 31 24.2 13 10.2 128 100
Good personality 83 64.8 35 27.3 10 7.8 128 100
Fighting 51 39.8 67 52.3 9 7 127 99.2
Language 92 71.9 28 21.9 8 6.2 128 100
Problem solving 95 74.2 24 18.8 9 7 128 100
From viewing satellite television programs, 81 teen respondents (63.3%) learned speaking well. 82 out of 126 respondents, i.e., 64.1% of the respondents learned team work from viewing satellite television programs. 83 respondents out of 128 learned dressing style from viewing of satellite television programs. Out of 128 teen respondents, 84 learned creativity. 83 out of 128 respondents learned good personality. 51 out of 127 respondents learned fighting from satellite television programs. 92 teen respondents out of 128 respondents learned language from viewing satellite television programs. And 95 out of 128 learned problem solving from satellite television programs.

4.1.9 Satellite television program viewing habits of teenagers
Table 9.1 people teens like most to watch with the satellite television programsNo With whom would you like to watch satellite tv most? Frequency Percent
1 Alone 48 37.5
2 Brother and sister 55 43
3 Father 1 8
4 Mother 7 5.5
5 Relatives 6 4.7
6 Others 11 8.6
Total 128 100
37.5 % of the teen respondents liked to watch satellite television programs alone; 43% liked to watch with their brothers and sisters; 8% liked to watch with their fathers; 5.5% of the respondents liked to watch with their mothers; 4.7 % of the teen respondents liked to watch with their relatives; and the rest 8.6% of the respondents liked to watch with others. The teen respondents stated boyfriend, girlfriend (lover) and friends under the category of others. Next to brothers and sisters, teen respondents liked to watch satellite television programs alone.
Table 9.2 who select satellite television programs for teenagers mostNo Who selects television programs for you most Frequency Percent
1 Self 94 73.4
2 Brother and sister 13 10.2
3 Father 11 8.6
4 Mother 5 3.9
5 Relatives 5 3.9
Total 128 100
73.4% of the teen respondents selected satellite television programs for themselves; for 10.2% of the respondents, their brothers and sisters selected satellite television programs. For 8.6% of the respondents, their fathers selected the satellite television programs, and for 3.9% of the teen respondents, their mothers selected the satellite television programs they viewed. Finally, for 3.9% of the respondents, their relatives in their homes selected the satellite television programs they watched.

Table 9.3 while view satellite television program first family member to turn on the television set mostNo The first family member to turn on the set Frequency Percent
1 Self 74 57.8
2 Brother and sister 27 21.1
3 Father 11 8.6
4 Mother 8 6.2
5 Relatives 8 6.2
Total 128 100
57.8 % of the teen respondents were the first family members to turn on the satellite television set in their home. For 21.1% of the respondents, their brothers and sisters were the first family members to turn on their satellite television sets. Moreover, 8.6% fathers, 6.2% mothers and 6.2% relatives of the teen respondents were the first family members to turn on the television sets when they viewed satellite television programs.
Table 9.4 the last family member to turn off the television set after viewing satellite television programNo The last family member to turn off the set most Frequency Percent
1 Self 54 42.2%
2 Brother and sister 26 20.3%
3 Father 24 18.8%
4 Mother 17 13.3%
5 Relatives 7 5.5%
Total 128 100%
According to table 9.4 the last family member to turn off the television set most were the teens themselves, 54 respondents. Brothers and sisters turned off for 26 respondents, fathers for 24 respondents, mothers for 17 respondents, and relatives were the last family members to turn off the satellite television sets most.

Chart 9.1 satellite television channels that targeted to teens installed by families in home
Out of 128 respondents, 76 teen respondents (59.4%) had a list of satellite television programs that targeted children, and 52 or (40.6%) of them did not have a list of satellite television programs that targeted children in their home.
4.2 QUALITATIVE ANALYSISApart from the quantitative survey, to understand and triangulate the opinions of teenagers, parents and concerned individuals were contacted to find information regarding the effects of satellite television programs on social behavior of teenagers. The researcher employed the qualitative approach to analyze the data collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.

4.2.1 Awareness on effect of viewing satellite televisionViewing of satellite television has effects on the viewer both positively and negatively. To know the awareness of teenagers, parents and concerned individuals, the researcher collected the opinions of the respondents qualitatively by employing focus group discussions with teens of different age categories and in depth interviews with parents and concerned individuals. According to the majority of the respondents’ opinions, viewing of satellite television has both positive and negative effects.
“Viewing of satellite television programs has both positive and negative effects, satellite television informs us about current issues of our country and the world; it is also used to gain knowledge, those are positive effects. The negative effect of viewing satellite television programs is it propagates new things which are against our cultures, but to me the positive effects are more than the negative ones.” (FGD, Beziwt Hymanot)
For (FGD, Teklab Wasiun and Nebiyat Birara) satellite television has negative effects when it is viewed for long time without a viewing schedule; when it is viewed lightly on schedule, satellite television programs are sources of gaining knowledge and information.

“Satellite television programs have negative and positive effects on viewers; information and education functions are among the positive effects, and the negative thing is viewing of satellite television program kills times,” (FGD, Besufikad Taye).

According to the opinions of parents and concerned individuals, respondents are cognizant on effects that viewing of satellite television programs has.
(IN, Hawa Mohammed, head of Assosa city women and children’s affairs office), “as resident of Assosa city and as representative of the concerned organization, I observe the negative effects of satellite television more than positive effects on teenagers’ social behavior in the context of our city”. (IN, Mesrat Kebeda and Temesegen Admassu), knows that viewing of satellite television have effects on their teenagers’ social behavior, but respondents missed what kind of effects their teens in countered. However, (IN, Minyahel Getent), “satellite television programs have only positive effects to me; because I control and supervise the viewing hours of my teens and also I prefer what my family has been viewing”.

Among the parent respondents, there is the opinion that says viewing of satellite television programs has more negative effects on their teens’ social behavior than positive effects; “I observe more negative effects of viewing satellite television programs than positive effects” (IN, Meskirem Gashu). “To me, there is no positive thing that my teen learns from the viewing of satellite television programs,” said (IN, Mulualem Wondasa).
School representative, behavioral science expert and child protection experts agreed that there is effect of viewing satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior at Assosa city.

4.2.2. Effects of viewing satellite television programs on social behaviorsTeenagers who participated in the focus group discussions confirmed that viewing of satellite television programs have effects on their social behavior. As (FGD,Yordanos Gedamu) put, because of satellite television program preference differences, children come into conflict with their family members at home; they would fight to each other to take the remote controller. She exercised what she watched from satellite television programs responsibly; she says “we are influenced by others, even when foreigners received style of dressing from our country and then make some modification on it and broadcast it by satellite television programs, we simply follow it”.
“When we view satellite television programs, we keep silent and follow the programs. This creates gap with our family members because other members of the family wants to discuss issues with us and the difference of program preferences between our family members leads us to get quarreled each other,” (FGD Natnael Mesfin). Similarly (FGD, Nebiyat Birara) said “we discuss and quarrel on last night satellite television programs.” According to her, satellite television program characters as her role models, “I forced my family to do things like that of satellite television programs; for instance, I told my father and my brothers to dress like those on satellite television programs.”
“While I am watching my favorite satellite television programs, if my families come and interrupt me this makes me angry. As much as possible I try to follow the dressing style of what I saw from the satellite television programs. We discuss what we watched in our home from the satellite television programs on the next day with our friends. We narrate what we viewed; this makes me interact more with my friends, but while I watch my favorite satellite television programs when one of my friends comes home and wants to play with me, I do not accept it,” (FGD, Lidiya Tsigu). Also (FGD, Besufikad Taye) says while he watches his favorite satellite television program, if somebody comes and wants to discuss with him, he is impassive. According to him, when he watched fighting program on satellite television, he wants to practice it. Mostly he discusses with his friends what he viewed from satellite television programs, and he wants to talk like characters of satellite television programs.
Contrary to the aforementioned opinions on social interactions, for (FGD, Beziwt Hymanot) “due to viewing of satellite television programs interactions between members of my family is increasing, satellite television makes our family to interact more; members of our family gather round the television set to watch satellite television. It gives us time to meet and discuss our family issues, most of the time we discuss movies, music and other satellite television programs.” She considers characters of satellite television program as her role models and follows their dressing styles. She says it is positive if it is done in a responsible way, “it is up to the viewers to select and follow styles.”
According to opinions of the respondents, viewing of satellite television is considered as one important occasion which makes changes on the social practices, and also it is a source of disagreement between family members; “in our home because of viewing satellite television, my mother and my father are always in clashes, because my mother is highly addicted to movies which are transmitted on Kana television. She fails to remember her duty at home; this leads my father to quarrel with her,” (FGD, Amanuel Uassmon).

“In our home, we eat dinner at 8:00 pm but if we got interesting satellite television programs, we would wait until the program winds up because everybody doesn’t want to stop viewing. Even we the teens are not interested in eating; rather, we need to watch the programs” (FGD, Teklab Wasiun).

Parents responded that their teens social interaction is decreasing because of watching satellite television programs, “after school teens directly begin watching movies from satellite television, because of this their social interaction is highly affected. Not only teens’, parents’ social interaction is also highly affected. The so called, Kana television has taken everything of ours” (IN, Meskirem Gashu).

Majority of parent respondents said that they discussed and quarrel on issues of satellite television programs with their teens at home mostly, but (IN, Minyhel Getent) responded “because of viewing satellite television programs, my teens’ interaction with family, friends and neighbors is not changed; it is the same as usual. In my home, I quarrel with my teen on family issues”.

“I have one female and one male teens, They watch satellite television for long time; both of them want to practice what they saw on satellite television programs, because of viewing satellite television programs, my teens’ interaction with everybody is decreasing, they need to watch their preferred programs than everything” (IN, Mesrat Kebeda).
Olana Haile, director of Assosa primary school said, “as to my observation, there are overt negative and positive effects of satellite television programs on our students. Students practiced what they viewed on satellite television programs, the negative effects are more than the positive effects. Students practiced fighting with their friends like what they viewed on satellite television programs. Because of viewing of satellite television programs, students forget their school assignments. When we ask our students about the reason that makes them to forget their school assignments, they say ‘our time is aggressively occupied by satellite television programs which makes us forget our school assignments.’ When our students watch positive things from which they gain knowledge, they transmit it on our school min-media for others.”
4.2.3, program preference and reason of viewingThe opinion of respondents shows that program preference of teenagers were diverse; majority of teen respondents like to watch foreign based satellite television programs than locally produced (Ethiopian) satellite television productions. They mention the quality of programs as criteria for their interest.

“I prefer foreign satellite television productions because when we see television production from our country, it is similar across different television channels; there is no variety” (FGD, Nebiyat Birara). Likewise (FGD, Lidiya Tsigu) prefers foreign satellite television program productions than satellite television program productions from Ethiopia, “their productions are interesting; they even know the interest of viewers. On the contrary, viewers’ interest is not the concern of producers of our country”. (FGD Yordanos Gedamu) disagreed the opinion of Nebiyat and Lidiya; she says, “To me productions from our country are important and interesting than foreign productions. Teenagers are forced by peer pressure to view satellite television programs rather than production quality”.

The program preference of respondents depends on viewers’ age; music and movie programs are mostly preferred by teens, “we are preferring to watch satellite television movies and music programs, my little brother wants to watch carton films, and our father wants to see satellite television news program” (FGD Yordanos Gedamu).

For the majority of teen respondents, the reason for watching satellite television program was the purpose of entertainment and some of the respondents view satellite television programs for educational and informational purposes.

“I prefer to view satellite television programs about technology not only the content of programs but also the technologies that foreign productions use are more advanced than that of our country’s” (FGD Natnael Mesfin). “I watch satellite television programs for the purpose of entertaining and information, I am always concerned about hearing information about my country and the world, so I watch satellite television programs” (FGD, Teklab Wasiun).

Program preference variations across members of families were the reason of quarrel and disagreement. “in my home my teens quarrel and even fight on deciding what to be viewed; my boy wants to watch sport or fighting programs, but she wants to watch music or romantic movies” (IN, Mesrat Kebeda). Not only among teen viewers, program preference is also the issue of quarrel and disagreement between teens and their families, even between parents also. “We always quarrel each other in my family on satellite television program preference. I want to view news program; my wife wants to view movies, and my teen wants action films; because of disagreement on the preference, I sometimes stay out of my home for long time since I am not interested in watching their program preferences”( IN, Muluneh Kassa).

“Program preference of we members of the family contradicts to each other; my child and my wife were not happy with my program preference, and I am not interested in watching their satellite television program. Also my child is not interested by his mother’s preference and the reverse is true for his mom; before the introduction of Kana satellite television movie programs, my wife was not happy if I stay outside after work, but now she doesn’t care about that; she simply watches movies until mid night” (IN, Mulualem Wondasa).

4.2.4 Viewing habit of satellite television programsThere were teen participants of focus group discussions who responded that they preferred to watch satellite television programs alone “I want to watch satellite television programs alone, when I watch with my family members, they disturb me” (FGD, Amanuel uassmon). Contrary to Amanuel’s opinion (FGD, Beziwt Hymanot) say “I want to watch satellite television programs with my family members, in our home my father decides what to be viewed and I am happy with it”.

The majority of teen respondents did not have any schedule to watch satellite television programs and a list of satellite television programs that directly targeted children in their home; however, (FGD Yordanos Gedamu) said, “in our home there is separate television set and room to view but there is not any satellite television programs directly targeting us and also we have not any schedule to view satellite television programs and to study”.

We always discuss and quarrel on satellite television programs with my family members; my teens do not have any schedule to view satellite television. They are interested to view any time; this leads me to a conflict with them. When I go away from home, they would stop studying and start watching satellite television programs. In my home, we watch satellite television programs together with my teens. My teens are the first members of my family to turn on the television set and the last to turn it off (IN,Temesegen Admassu),
For Temesegen, it was possible to buy additional television set for his child and to let his teens view in a separate room but because of lake of awareness he did nothing; contrary to this, “we watch satellite television programs together. I know it is not recommended to view together with children but because of economic reasons we are forced to watch jointly” (IN, Muluneh Kassa).

4.2.5 Opinion of families and concerned organizations to diminish negative effectsBased on the opinion of parents, to diminish the negative effects by focusing on the positive effects, the negative effects were beyond their control. It needs the attention of media organizations, policy makers and the government.

“I know that satellite television have effects on my teens but I don’t know what the solution is”, (IN, Mesrat Kebeda). According to the respondents, because of its negative effects on social behavior, especially on the social interaction of the society, it needs solution; “this issue needs immediate solution at this time; it is a source of conflict in every family” (IN, Mulualem Wondasa).

Parent respondents also requested media institutions and government organizations to interfere, “concerned media institutions of our country, policy makers and governmental organizations must do something; media institutions should produce television programs according to our culture but in attention-grabbing way; the government or policy makers should make reforms and should work on awareness creating” (IN, Muluneh Kassa).

Some respondents suggested that the government should put restrictions on the importing of programs and rebroadcasting of foreign productions, “it is better if the government puts restrictions on such programs” (IN, Meskirem Gashu).
According to a response of Assosa City Administration’s Women and Children Affairs Office’s Child Protection officer, their office did nothing on this issue, with the exception of giving advice for parents in unplanned way, “teenagers should know things in line with their ages. As a concerned organization, regards to effects of satellite television programs, our office did nothing other than giving advice for parents to supervise their teens, and teens to focus on their educational issues” (IN, Hawa Mohammed, office head).

There are nongovernmental organizations which are engaged on children’s issues at Assosa city. Unicef is among the nongovernmental organizations engaged on child issues; even unicef has an office and experts working with the Regional Women and Children Affairs Bureau. According to Getent Tariku, child protection officer of unicef, their organization simply supports financially and technically child protection issues, which are planned by the concerned governmental organizations, ” there are no any written rules, regulations, manuals and documents on effects of satellite television in Ethiopia; due to this there is no planned actions to prevent the negative effects. As a resident I observe the negative effects; even there is indirect effect of satellite television programs on daily tasks. Satellite television is among the causes of child trafficking. When children watch beautiful cities and luxurious ways of life on television programs, they could consider their neighboring cities to be like what they saw on television programs. Then they would migrate to neighboring cities” (IN, Getent Tariku).

According to Getahun Tadesse, lecturer and researcher in the Psychology Department of Assosa University, there are the obvious effects of satellite television programs in Assosa city:
Television programs should consider the economic, social and psychology issues of audiences; television program productions and transmissions in our country lake this. For instance, when we see advertisings of breweries, the promotion by itself creates eagerness on teen viewers psychologically. Children want to practice things that are not allowed, so when promoters say ‘it is not allowed to sale for children under the age 18’, teenagers under this age would be motivated to practice it (IN, Getahun Tadesse).

Studies show that the viewing of satellite television programs has negative effects on viewers’ social behavior; for instance, teens’ dressing and hair style were mostly affected, “sensitive mind of teenagers needs protection” (IN, Getahun Tadesse). According to his opinion, media institutions should consider the socio-economic and psychological make-ups of teen viewers while they produce television productions; concerned government organizations should also put restrictions on importing of programs.

To diminish the negative effects of satellite television programs on teenagers Getahun recommended parents, “parents should install satellite television programs for their teens, satellite television programs proper with their teens’ age, teens viewing must be scheduled” (IN, Getahun Tadesse).
4.3. DiscussionData gained through the quantitative (questionnaire) and the qualitative (in-depth interview and focus group discussions) methods are discussed concurrently by considering the objectives of the study.

Based on teenagers’ opinion, for the majority of teen respondents, the viewing of satellite television programs is taken as one of their daily activities both on the school and weekend days. Many of the teens want to view their preferred satellite television programs alone and with their brothers or sisters. Teens and parents conformed that due to the variation of program preference, teens want to watch satellite television programs alone or with peers.
There is no much difference between teens’ age categories, gender and satellite television program preferences; comparatively music, drama, family and reality shows are more preferred by female teens than male teens, the reverse is true for sports and fighting programs of satellite television programs; this is also verified qualitatively. (Rubin, 1994) proposes individual differences that result in highly personal motives cause people to use and depend upon media. Media dependency may lead to media effect in itself.
As Schiller (1996) confirms, ‘importing programs is importing lifestyles and exposure to foreign television programs may transform the values”. Massive teenagers and parents watch foreign satellite television programs or foreign programs rebroadcasted in Ethiopia because of dull productions of native television programs. According to the respondents, foreign programs or rebroadcasted programs in Ethiopia were not produced in line with the culture and norms of Ethiopians.
Media play an outstanding role in strengthening the society; it’s a mirror of the society. Its function is to inform, educate and entertain people. It helps us to know what is going on around the world. It is the media that shapes our lives. Our lives would be incomplete without the media, (Paterson, 1997). Teens mostly view satellite television programs for the purpose of entertainment; viewing habit for the purpose of information and education is so limited in number. Also a few number of teen respondents view satellite television programs for nothing. According to the response of parents, fathers prefer satellite television for news programs and mothers prefer satellite television for movie programs; the variations of satellite television program preferences between teenagers and parents and between parents and parents were the causes of conflict at a family level.
Regards to the effect of viewing satellite television programs on social behavior of viewers, teens responded on survey questionnaire and showed that comparatively there is low awareness of teenagers on the effects that satellite television programs have on viewers; majority of the teen respondents of the questionnaire disagreed on effect of viewing satellite television have on viewers and undecided on it. Some teen respondents are undecided on manners of the effect, qualitative responses of teens and parents shows that respondents aware on the effect but some respondents did not determine the type of effect.

Social behavior is a term used to describe the general conduct revealed by individuals within a society. According to Hartup, social behavior consists of activity extracted by stimuli emanating from people or activity which in itself possesses stimulus value for people. Hartup (1965, p.122), this type of human behavior is primarily used to determine how individuals interact with one another and within a group or society, teenagers social behavior is a totality of all the interactions that teens engage in ranging from his/her conduct to diction, dress sense and even preferences. It also means the way in which a person reacts to a set of conditions.
For the majority of teen respondents of questionnaire because of viewing satellite television programs, teens’ interactions with family, relatives, neighbors and friends did not change but for some teen respondents, because of viewing satellite television programs, their interactions with family members, relatives, neighbors and friends were decreasing. Based on teens’ opinions, there is no significant difference between respondents’ age category and gender on the effects of satellite television on teenagers’ social behavior.

Visiting and meeting friends, neighbors, families and relatives frequently and welcoming them at home is a recognized culture of Ethiopians; because of viewing satellite television programs, teens meeting anyone while viewing their preferred satellite television program is decreasing, teens were not happy to meet anyone while viewing satellite television programs.
“Television set has become a key member of the family, the one who tells most of the stories most of the time” (Gerbner et al, 1994). according to respondents response because of viewing of satellite television programs teenagers discussion with their family members were increasing , respondents say members of family gathered around television set to view satellite television programs, this makes members of family to discuss easily.
Satellite television programs are the issues of discussion for teens with their friends. Next to educational issues, satellite television is the issues of discussions for teens than social and political issues. Satellite television programs are causes of conflict for teens with their friends and with their family members. The conflicts are not only between teens with parents, but also among parents. The variation of satellite television program preference and heavy viewing were the reasons for conflicts among family members; based on teens’ response of survey questioners, male respondents quarrel more on satellite television programs but female respondents quarrel more on educational issues.

The opinion of teen respondents show that majority of them considered satellite television program characters as their role model; in the quantitative response, majority of teens did not want to dress up like different characters of satellite televisions programs and they consider dressing style on satellite television programs are not preferable than local dressing style but in qualitative response teens, parents and concerned individuals indicated that teens dress like what they viewed on satellite television programs. Majority of the teens did not want to wear jewelry worn by different characters of satellite television and they did not talk in style resembling characters of satellite television programs.

Most of the respondents need to eat foods that they saw on satellite television programs even on the event of celebrating their birthday. They want to celebrate like what they saw on satellite television programs, but the majority did not prefer foreign foods to Ethiopian foods when celebrating cultural and traditional days.

Teenagers model or learn from satellite television programs; they are less capable than adults to understand the effects of viewing satellite television programs. According to (Bandura, 1977), viewers acquire attitudes, emotional responses and new styles of conduct from media, especially from films and television. Actions of characters in the audio-visual media can serve as a model for others to imitate, an individual observes a character, identifies him/her as a model and remembers actions of model and performs them when confronted with similar circumstances (DeFleur and Sandra, 1989).

Watching satellite television has its good side.  It can be entertain, educational and inform teens, they can gain exposure to ideas that they may never encounter in their own community, a pro social message can have a positive effect on teens’ behavior; programs with positive role models can influence viewers to make positive lifestyle changes.  However, the reverse can also be true:  teens are likely to learn things from satellite television programs that parents don’t want them to learn; it can affect teen’s behavior and social life in negative ways. 
Majority of teen respondents learned speaking well, team work, dressing style, creativity, good personality, language and problem solving more from viewing satellite television programs; teens learn less fighting from satellite television programs. Respondents indicated in the FGDs/interviews that teens need to practice styles of fighting what they watched from satellite television programs.

Television related interpersonal activities in the home are shown to be rule governed while audience members and sources of media programming at the societal level are revealed to engage in rule based interaction that perpetuates selected ideologies and their accompanying lifestyle models (Lull.1976). Psychologists, experts, parents and officials recommended that viewing of satellite television programs should be governed by rule; those who responded qualitatively recommended government and policy makers to make reforms and put restrictions on foreign satellite television programs which have negative effects on teens’ social behavior. Media institutions are recommended to produce interesting programs in line with the Ethiopian culture; parents are also recommended to supervise and to prefer satellite television programs for their teens.

Most of the teen respondents indicated they themselves select satellite television programs to view; mostly they were the first members of their family to turn on and the last members of their family to turn off the television set. Based on the respondents’ opinion, teenagers’ viewing of satellite television programs were not scheduled even in the home of respondents who installed the satellite television programs directly targeting children. To diminish and control the negative effects of satellite television programs parents, concerned government organizations and non-governmental organizations did not carry out what was expected from them.
In Ethiopia there are not any written rules, regulations and documents on the effect of satellite television. Because of this, concerned governmental and nongovernmental organizations did not include the effects of satellite television on viewers in their organizational plans; the issue of creating awareness for parents and teenagers also are not planned.

CHAPTER FIVE:5, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 ConclusionsThis chapter presents the conclusion of the research and offers recommendation. To get the opinions of teenagers, parents and concerned individuals on the effect of satellite television on teenagers’ social behavior, several data collecting instruments were used, and that was analyzed using the quantitative and qualitative approaches. The main findings and conclusions of the study are presented below.
The findings of the study revealed that viewing of satellite television programs has become as one of the daily activities of teenagers both on school days and weekends. Teenagers’ program preferences of satellite television programs vary based on the individual’s interest, but mostly teens prefer entertainment programs than other television programs. There is no significant difference of program preference and reasons of viewing satellite television programs based on the teenagers’ age groups and gender. Relatively music, derma, family and reality shows of the satellite television programs are more preferred by female teens than by the male teens, whereas sports and fighting programs of satellite television programs are more preferred by male teens than by the female teens.

Many teenagers and parents watch foreign satellite television programs or foreign programs rebroadcasted from Ethiopia mainly because of dull productions of native television programs. And yet, as the respondents put foreign programs or rebroadcasted programs in Ethiopia are not produced in line with the culture and norms of Ethiopians.

The opinion of teenagers and parents shows that there is lack of awareness on effect of satellite television programs on social behavior of viewers. Respondents from concerned governmental and nongovernmental organizations were comparatively aware of the effect of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior.
The study has also revealed that viewing of satellite television programs has effect on Assosa’s teenagers social interaction; for some of the teenagers, their social interactions increased with the viewing of satellite television programs and for others, their social interactions decreased because of viewing satellite television programs. Hence, satellite television programs have both positive and negative effects on teenagers’ social interactions. Currently satellite television programs are the reasons of conflicts and disagreements for teenagers with their friends and among members of their family. Teenagers discuss more on the issues of satellite television programs they viewed than other issues with their friends and family members.

Some components of the teenagers’ social practices are affected because of viewing satellite television programs; majority of teens consider satellite television program characters as their role models. They need to eat what they view on satellite television programs and also they want to celebrate their birthdays in the way they see from satellite television programs. Some of them want to dress like what they see on satellite television programs.
From viewing of satellite television programs, teenagers learn many things which add knowledge for them; on the contrary, from viewing satellite television programs, teenagers learn many things that affect their social behavior negatively. The study located that there is insignificant difference between teenager’s age level, gender and effect of satellite television programs on social behavior.
Most of the teenagers want to view satellite television programs lonely; teens are not interested by programs preferences of their parents. According to the opinion of teenagers and parents, teenagers viewing of satellite television program are not scheduled. On the other hand, family members those who install satellite television programs target to children in their own house do not have any television viewing schedule for their children.

Experts, parents and researcher confirm the overt effects of satellite television programs in Assosa city. Concerned governmental and non-governmental organizations have not done anything significant to minimize the negative effects of satellite television programs on teenagers or viewers and to maximize the positive effects. The effort of teenagers’ parents to minimizing the negative effects of satellite television programs on their teens’ social behavior has also been so insignificant. Experts and officials of concerned organizations recognize the effect of viewing satellite television programs on teenagers or viewers, but the issue has not been included in their work plans.

There are not any written documents, manuals, rules and regulations about the effect of satellite television programs and measures that should be taken in the context of Ethiopia. According to the respondents’ opinions the absence of these things makes efforts of concerned organizations to combating the negative effect of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior futile. The experts, parents and researcher recommended that the government and policy makers should make reforms and to put restrictions on the importing of foreign programs.
The respondents have also recommended that media institutions should produce interesting television programs in line with the culture and norms of Ethiopians. It is also recommended that parents should install satellite television programs that are for teenagers and should also supervise their teens’ viewing habit of satellite television programs.

6.2. RecommendationMany teenagers are exposed to satellite television programs produced by developed countries. When they watch satellite television programs, teens would spend a lot of their study time viewing other people’s opinions and eventually start following the actions and dressing styles of different ‘celebrities’; this makes teenagers to change their social behavior. Based on the findings of the study, the following could thus be recommended.

Satellite television has an important role in the shaping of teenagers’ social behavior; hence, parents and concerned organizations have to regulate the content of satellite television programs in order to reduce the negative effects of satellite television on viewers; in this regard, teenagers in particular are more vulnerable than adult viewers.

Parents should be the prime role models for their children; this includes their viewing habit of satellite television programs. Parents are thus recommended to take care on program preference, viewing hour and on viewing habit of satellite television programs. Parents need to install pro-social and educational programs of satellite television for their teens and their viewing also ought to be scheduled.

Media institutions in Ethiopia could produce interesting television programs by considering the socio-economic set-up of the society. The diversified nature of Ethiopia and its peoples are the golden opportunities to produce quality and interesting television programs. This makes teenagers to know and understand their environment, their culture and the norms of their society; such productions may serve to develop pro-social behavior for teenagers. In addition, the media ought to design specific messages to raise the awareness of parents, experts and concerned governmental organizations on the effect of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior.

Moreover, it is the duty of the government to put restrictions on the importing of satellite television programs which have negative effects on teenagers’ social behaviors, and to create awareness among the society on the effects. Governmental organizations should take the effects of satellite television programs as serious societal problems which need planed actions. Thus, written documents, rules, regulations and laws are needed to be ratified to prohibit media institutions from broadcasting of programs that might have negative effects. There should also be regulations on the rebroadcasting of television programs that are produced by the developed countries.
This study was conducted on the effect of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior at Assosa city; therefore, subsequent researches should be conducted on other areas to investigate the effect of satellite television on social behavior on the youth, adults and other audiences. A further perspective could be the effect of satellite television programs on other types of behavior such as political and health behavior of audiences.

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Row.AppendixAppendix, A Questionnaire for TeenagersDear Respondents,
I am a graduate student of Jimma University, school of post graduate studies M.A program in Broadcast Journalism. And I am conducting a study on effect of satellite television programs on teenagers’ social behavior at Assosa city. Following this I intend to employ questionnaire as instrument of data collection on effect of satellite television programs on social behavior. The data that you are going to fill will have the potential to represent the practice, involvement, knowledge, and attitudes of teenagers towards the effect of satellite television. So, I genuinely request you to take a moment and fill this questionnaire. It is merely for academic purpose and all of your answers will be anonymous.
Therefore, feel free to provide your genuine response.
Thank you for your help!
Personal Information
Directions: Please circle the answers that best represents your response to the questions
Sex
A) Male B) Female
Age:
A) 13 years B) 14 years C) 15 years D) 16 years
residence/ kebele where you live
A) 01 kebele B) 02 kebele C) 03 kebele D) 04 kebele
1. Do you have satellite television connection at home?
A) Yes B) No
If YES, give answers for the following questions.

1.1 viewing hours
1.1.1. How many hours do you watch satellite television programs daily on school days?
A) None B) Less than an hour C) One to two hours
D) Two to three hours E) Over three hours
1.1.2. How many hours do you watch satellite television programs daily on a weekend?
A) None B) Less than an hour C) One to two hours
D) Two to three hours E) Over three hours
1.2 satellite television program preference
1.2.1, what kind of satellite television programs do you enjoy watching most?
Watch Not watch Watch Not watch
News 1 2 Comedies 1 2
Documentary 1 2 Action movies 1 2
Family movies 1 2 Horror 1 2
Police programs 1 2 Reality TV 1 2
Sports 1 2 Drama 1 2
Music 1 2 Others (Specify) _________
1.3. Reason of viewing satellite television program
1.3.1. Why do you watch satellite television?
A) For entertainment
B) For information
C) For education
D) For nothing
E) Other
2. Opinion on Effects of satellite television programs
2.1. do you believe that viewing of satellite television programs have effect on viewers behavior?
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
2.2. If you agree in which manner
A) Positively B) negatively C) both positively and negatively D) Undecided
3. Effect on social interactions
3.1. Because of watching satellite television programs my interaction with my family members’ is?
A) Increasing B) decreasing C) not changed D) undecided
3.2. Because of watching satellite television programs my interaction with my neighbors or friends is?
A) Increasing B) decreasing C) not changed D) undecided
3.3. Because of watching satellite television programs my interaction with my relatives is?
A) Increasing B) decreasing C) not changed D) undecided
3.4. Meeting anyone at my time of watching satellite television program is?
A) Increasing B) decreasing C) not changed D) undecided
3.5. Because of watching satellite television programs discussing issues about family affairs at home is?
A) Increasing B) decreasing C) not changed D) undecided
3.6. When you were at school on which topic or topics do you discuss more with your friends?
A. on last night satellite television program
B. on educational issues
C, on social issues
D, on political issues
E, on other issues (Specify)_________
3.7. On which issues or issues you quarrel with your friends most?
A. on satellite television programs
B. on educational issues
C, on social issues
D, on political issues
E, on other issues (Specify)_________
4. Social practices
4.1, I consider satellite television characters as my role models
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
4.2. I like to formally dress up like different characters of satellite televisions programs
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
4.3. I consider dressing style on satellite television programs are preferable than local dressing style
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
4.4. I like to wear jewelry worn by different characters of satellite television?
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
4.5, I like to talk in style resembling characters of satellite television?
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
4.6. I need to eat food that I saw on satellite television programs.
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
4.7. On the event of celebrating my birthday I want to celebrate like what I have seen on satellite television?
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
4.8. On the event of celebrating cultural and traditional days I prefer foreign foods than Ethiopian foods?
A) Agree B) Disagree C) Undecided
5 what you learn from satellite television programs
On Viewing of satellite television programs I learn Agree Disagree Undecided
Speak well Team Work Dressing style Creativity Good personality Fighting Language Problem solving 6 viewing habits
6.1. With whom would you like to watch satellite television?
A) Alone B) Brother or sister C) Father D) Mother E,) Relatives who live with us
F) Other (Specify) __________
6.2 Who selects television programs for you?
A) Me B) Brother or sister C) Father D) Mother E,) Relatives who live with us
F) Other (Specify) __________
6.3. While you view satellite television program who is the first family member to turn on the television set?
A) Me B) Brother or sister C) Father D) Mother E,) Relatives who live with us
F) Other (Specify) __________
6.4. While you view satellite television program who is the last family member to turn off the television set most?
A) Me B) Brother or sister C) Father D) Mother E,) Relatives who live with us
F) Other (Specify) __________
6.5. Is there a list of satellite television channels directly targeted to you that installed by your families in your home?
A) Yes B) no
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5/ ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ?) ?? ?) ???Appendix B Interview Guide For parentsDo you have satellite television connection at your home?
What is/are your teens’ favorite satellite television program/programs?
Why do your teens’ watch satellite television programs?
With who do your teen’ watch satellite television programs at your home?
Do you believe satellite television programs have an effect on your teens’ social behavior? If so mention the positive and negative effects that you get?
Do your teens wish to make his/her way of life like that of what he/she saw on satellite television programs like dressing, food, physical appearance, celebrating and talking e.t.c..?
While your teen watching his/her favorite programs if your family member, relatives or neighbors call him/her and send somewhere how he/ she perceive it?
While your teen watching his/her favorite programs if your family member, relatives or neighbors needs to discuss with him/her how he/ she perceive it ?
Do you install and list satellite television channels directly targeted to children in your home and schedule the viewing hour for your teen?
How would you see viewing of satellite television programs and it effect on the interaction of your teen with family, friends, neighbors and relatives?
At home which issues you discuss more with your teen?
Who decides what to be seen on satellite television in your home and is your teen happy with it?
Appendix C Interview Guide For experts
Do you think satellite television program messages have effects on teen’s social behavior and how about at Assosa town?
How would you see the effects on teenagers at Assosa town in the perspective of behavioral science?
Are there any possibilities to minimize the negative effects and to focus on the positive ones?
To minimize the negative effects and to focus on the positive ones what will be your suggestion for teenagers, families and concerned body?
Appendix D, Interview Guide for Concerned Individuals from different organizations
Do you have any information related to the effect of satellite television programs?
Do you observe positive or negative effects of satellite televisions programs on teenagers’ social behavior? If so mention them?
While you carry out your task have you got cases related to viewing satellite television programs and its effect on viewers at Assosa town?
Are there any rules, document or guideline to prevent and mange negative impacts of technologies?
What could be the role of your organizations to overcome the effects?
Appendix E, Guide FOR FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION
1. Why you watch satellite television program/ programs?
With whom you preferred to watch your favorite satellite television program/ programs and why?
Do you believe if satellite television programs have an effects on your social behavior if so mention the positive and negative effects that you get?
Did you wishes to make your way of life like that of what you saw on satellite television programs like dressing, food, physical appearance, celebrating and talking etc..?
While you watch your favorite programs if our family member, relatives and neighbors calls you and sent you some were what would you feel?
While you watch your favorite programs if our family member, relatives, friends and neighbors need to discuss with you what would you feel?
On which topics you discuss more with your friends and families?
Who decide what to be seen on satellite television in your home and are you happy with it?
Appendix F Focus Group Discussant (FGD)No Name sex Grade
1 Besufikad Tayemale 7th
2 Yordanos Gedamufemale 8th
3 Natnael Mesfinmale 8th
4 Lidiya Tsigufemale 7th
5 Nebiyat Birarafemale 10th
6 Teklab Wasiunmale 9th
7 Beziwt Hamanotfemale 9th
8 Amanuel uassmonmale 10th
Appendix G List of Interviewees for the StudyNo Name sex Keble Education Profession
1 Temesegen AdmassuM 02 Diploma Privet
2 Muluneh KassaM 04 PhD candidate Lecturer
3 Mesrat KebedaF 03 10th Privet
4 Mulualem WondasaM 04 B.A economist
5 Meskirem GashuF 01 Diploma Student
6 Minyhel GetentM 02 B.A Accountant
7 Hawa Mohammed, F – B.A office head
8 Getent Tariku M — M.A NGO expert
10 Getahun TadesseM — M.A Lecturer
11 cagnie chekolM — B.A Sociologist
12 Olana Haile M — B.A Teacher