Gastrointestinal parasite is measure problem of developing countries where sanitation and nutritional status of the cattle is poor

Gastrointestinal parasite is measure problem of developing countries where sanitation and nutritional
status of the cattle is poor. Haemonchus contortus (Rud., 1803) is the most significant and common
parasite in the sheep and goat of the tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries of the world. It is the
highly pathogenic gastrointestinal nematode of the small ruminants. The adult parasite is attached to the

gut of host and feeds upon blood in the stomach (abomasum). It causes anaemia, haemorrhagic
gastroenteritis, edema (bottle jaw), diarrhea and depression of mineral level, all contributing to weight loss,
reduced milk, meat and wool production and frequent death. Haemonchosis is a hyper acute disease, as
death of the ruminants occurs within one week without significant signs resulting in great production and
the economic losses in the countries where animal husbandry is important occupation.

Measures to control Haemonchus contortus
Conventional anthelmintics and pasture management are widely used strategies to fight against this
pathogenic gastrointestinal nematode. There are various drugs which are used against them like
Fenbendazole, Mebendazole, Thiabendazole, Levamisole and Ivermectin however, wide use of these
anthelmintic drugs led to the development of resistance in H. contortus (Singh et al., 2002; Chandra et al.,
2014). Parasite strains resistant to one group of drugs may also be resistant to other groups, which suggest
the existence of multiple drug resistance to the major anthelmintic drugs. Increase of resistant of parasitic
strain causes high cost, reduction of animal production and risk of environmental pollution that has arose
interest in medicinal plant and plant product as an alternative source of anthelmintic (Herd, 1996; Waller,
1997; Melo et al., 2003). The herbal extracts are biodegradable and non toxic to the environment as well
as the livestock hence, are used to control these parasite.