Faculty of Business Administration Social Media as a Tool of Creating Brand Awareness in Tanzania Mining Industry A Case of Nesch Mintec Tanzania A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Masters Degree in Business Administration Prosper Munemo June 2018 DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY This is to certify that The thesis comprises my original work towards the MBA except where indicated and appropriate reference has been made in the text to all other material used

Faculty of Business Administration Social Media as a Tool of Creating Brand Awareness in Tanzania Mining Industry A Case of Nesch Mintec Tanzania A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Masters Degree in Business Administration Prosper Munemo June 2018 DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY This is to certify that The thesis comprises my original work towards the MBA except where indicated and appropriate reference has been made in the text to all other material used. Researcher Prosper Munemo MBA 59115 Signature. Date .. CERTIFICATION The undersigned certifies that has read and hereby recommends for acceptance by St Augustine University of Tanzania, a dissertation entitled Social Media as a Tool of Creating Brand Awareness in Tanzania Mining Industry A Case of Nesch Mintec Tanzania, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for award of Masters Degree of Business Administration. Supervisors Name Sr. Dr Hellen Bandiho Signature Date Table of Contents TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc519546351 DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY PAGEREF _Toc519546351 h ii HYPERLINK l _Toc519546352 CERTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc519546352 h iii HYPERLINK l _Toc519546353 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc519546353 h vii HYPERLINK l _Toc519546354 ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc519546354 h viii HYPERLINK l _Toc519546355 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc519546355 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546356 1.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519546356 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546357 1.2 Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc519546357 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546358 1.2.1 Overview of Nesch Mintec and Tanzania Mining Industry PAGEREF _Toc519546358 h 2 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546359 1.3 Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc519546359 h 3 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546360 1.4 Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc519546360 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546361 1.4.1 General Objective PAGEREF _Toc519546361 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546362 1.4.2 Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc519546362 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546363 1.5 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc519546363 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546364 1.6 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc519546364 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546365 1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study PAGEREF _Toc519546365 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546366 1.8 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc519546366 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546367 1.9 Definition of key terms PAGEREF _Toc519546367 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546368 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc519546368 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546369 2.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519546369 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546370 2.2 Brand PAGEREF _Toc519546370 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546371 2.2.1 Elements of Brand PAGEREF _Toc519546371 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546372 2.3 Social media PAGEREF _Toc519546372 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546373 2.3.1 Social media platforms PAGEREF _Toc519546373 h 14 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546374 2.3.2 Social Media Boosts PAGEREF _Toc519546374 h 15 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546375 2.3.4 Social Media in Brand Awareness PAGEREF _Toc519546375 h 15 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546377 2.4 Theories Regarding Brand Awareness PAGEREF _Toc519546377 h 17 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546378 2.5 Empirical Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc519546378 h 17 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546380 2.6 The Research Gap PAGEREF _Toc519546380 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546381 2.7 Summary of Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc519546381 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546382 CHAPTER THREE METHOD AND DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc519546382 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546383 3.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519546383 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546384 3.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc519546384 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546385 3.3 Geographical area of study PAGEREF _Toc519546385 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546386 3.4 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc519546386 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546387 3.5 Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc519546387 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546388 3.6 Sampling strategies PAGEREF _Toc519546388 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546389 3.7 Sources of data PAGEREF _Toc519546389 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546390 3.8 Data collection techniques PAGEREF _Toc519546390 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546391 3.9 Data analysis strategies PAGEREF _Toc519546391 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546392 3.10 Limitations PAGEREF _Toc519546392 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546393 3.11 Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc519546393 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546394 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS, DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc519546394 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546395 4.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519546395 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546396 4.1 General Characteristics of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc519546396 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546397 4.2 Findings by research objectives PAGEREF _Toc519546397 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546398 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc519546398 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546399 5.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519546399 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546400 5.1 Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc519546400 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546401 5.2 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc519546401 h 41 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546402 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc519546402 h 42 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546403 APPENDIX 1 LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc519546403 h 46 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546404 APPENDIX 2 QUESTIONNAIRE PAGEREF _Toc519546404 h 47 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks go to my supervisor Dr Hellen Bandiho who gave guidance and technical advice on this research. Thanks also go to Dr Batonda for the idea of the research topic. You are all forever blessed for your encouragement. Thanks also go to my wife Kudakwashe Chinyani Munemo who is patient and always encouraging for all the milestone achievements in my life. Thank you all ABSTRACT The research sought out to investigate the use of social media in creating brand awareness in Tanzania mining industry by studying Nesch Mintec, a company which specialises in laboratory testing of minerals. Social media has of late become popular as a means of creating brand awareness due to ease of use efficiency and affordability. The study sought to identify the various platforms of social media and their significance on marketing service, to determine the level of brand awareness and to assess the use of social media as means of creating brand awareness of Nesch Mintec. An exploratory study was carried out to understand social media coverage in marketing by providing questionnaires to walk in customers, giving an online survey, carrying out an interview with Nesch Mintec Management representative and monitoring the companys social media platform. The study found out that Nesch Mintec can utilise social media platforms such as LinkedIn, Youtube and Whats app. However, 37.5 of the respondents believed Facebook was more effective in creating brand awareness than other social media platforms. Nesch Mintec mainly uses the Facebook platform of social media to market their services and it has proven to be significant for the company marketing promotions with over 130,000 followers and was popular in creating brand awareness especially when it was under paid social media (media boost) and when the media content was a video. The Nesch Mintec brand is known to a moderate extent according to 60 of respondents and 77.5 of the respondents believed that social media alone cannot create brand awareness but a combinational of social media and traditional advertising should be used for creating brand awareness of Nesch Mintec. It was recommended that Nesch Mintec should utilise videos and boosting of social media posts to attract a larger number of brand followers since organic posts alone are not enough in strengthening its brand awareness CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Introduction This chapter presents background study, significance of study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, scope and limitations of the study, definition of key terms and conceptual framework. Background of the Study Social media among other marketing tools is one aspect that has seen a great revolution and has managed to reach a big audience both prospective customers and unintended customers this is because of its nature of reaching people of all facets it can be of great use for organisations that seek to lure and retain old customers and thus impact positively on the brand of the organisations (Odhiambo, 2012). Social media networks platforms facilitate the building of social relationships between people of different races and provide opportunities for them to share interests, backgrounds, activities or real-life connections. And in a business environment social media has of late crept into the boardrooms of business organizations and it has transformed the buying and selling processes just like the internet has done. Social media is a relatively new phenomenon which has proven to be more effective than traditional marketing techniques and some organizations use it in marketing and in the creation of awareness about their products and services (Icha Agwu, 2015). Marketing is concerned with anticipating customer demand and directing the flow of goods/services from producers to consumer. In marketing organisations try by all means to address the four Ps of marketing which are product, price, promotion and place which are essential in maximising visibility of the product (Jobber, 2003). In this regard organisations therefore use different ways of anticipating and capturing customer demands and historically this was limited to print media, radio adverts, television and brochures but because of the changes in technology consumers have shunned or virtually ignored some of these methods of advertising products especially the current generation of technology hungry generation. In this regard there has been a shift to web based type of e-marketing such as social media (Odhiambo, 2012). In a business environment where competition for customers is high, organisations engage in all kind of ways to find new and retain old customers. In service marketing where the face of the service will determine customer luring and retention, social media becomes an important tool for marketing. Overview of Nesch Mintec and Tanzania Mining Industry The Tanzania, mining industry is mainly composed of small scale artisanal miners and a few large-scale mining operations and according to Tanzania Chamber of Minerals and Energy Tanzania is the 4th largest gold producer in Africa after South Africa, Ghana and Mali. The mining sector is an instrumental part of the Tanzanian economy and, given the quantity of natural resources still to be exploited, will continue to be so for a considerable period of time. Mining companies and their operations benefit Tanzanians and the Tanzanian economy through a variety of means including creation of new business opportunities in local communities. (Tanzania Chamber of Mines, 2018). Nesch Mintec Tanzania Private Limited is a private company registered in Tanzania in February 2014 to offer laboratory, analytical services and consultancy in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy to the mining sector of Tanzania, East Africa and beyond. Nesch Mintec is located in Mkuyuni Industrial area in Mwanza Tanzania. Currently Nesch Mintec uses site visits radio and television and distribution of brochures and pamphlets to walk in customers as a way of advertising their services. Nesch Mintec also uses t-shirts with logo of the company in order to create a vivid picture of the brand of the company and recently it has also shifted to the social media platforms due to openness of the platform and ability of effective interaction with customers that it gives (Nesch Mintec, 2013). Statement of the problem Companies today are in dire need of increasing their visibility both locally and globally, with the growing number of options of marketing available and the growth of the social media platforms companies now face a dilemma on which options to concentrate on to reach their customers. Various authors have also argued that the social media is mainly used as a lifestyle networking tool and cannot be used in creating brand awareness, but most business organizations have realized that the brand has the power to build up the customers attraction towards the business and this attraction has been developed due to the recognition of the brands in the market place. This means that a sufficient number of customers demand these brands and refuse substitutes, even if the substitutes are offered at somewhat lower prices (Kotler, 1999). Nesch Mintec has in the past relied on traditional methods of marketing its laboratory services such as giving out brochures site visit to customers and advertising in newspapers and magazines and has of late started to penetrate the internet as a source of marketing by using its website, Facebook and Instagram platforms. However since there is no proven proof to show that this can be effective and efficient the company has requested for a research to be carried out on the current popular platform Facebook and the possibility of utilising other social media platforms in creating brand awareness. Studies done in Tanzania have concentrated more in brand awareness and loyalty in the mobile communication industry whilst there is no research done in mining industry. Objectives of the study General Objective The main objective of the study is to examine social media as a tool of creating brand awareness in Tanzania mining industry. A case of Nesch Mintec Tanzania Specific objectives To determine the various platforms of social media and their significance on marketing service products at Nesch Mintec Tanzania To identify social media platform used by Nesch Mintec To determine the level of brand awareness of Nesch Mintec To assess the use of social media as means of creating brand awareness of Nesch Mintec Research Questions Which social media platform can best be used for advertising Nesch Mintec mineral testing services What are the available social media platforms in use by Nesch Mintec What is the level of brand awareness of Nesch Mintec Can social media create brand awareness for Nesch Mintec compared to traditional media Significance of the Study Even though market strategies have improved a lot in recent years there is still very few research works made in the field of customer brand awareness using social media marketing in Tanzania. Social media has been applied in marketing different products and organizations in the world and it is not surprising that the mining industry can also benefit from this power of the social media. The research will also assist Tanzanian organizations which have a relatively low use and exposure of the marketing prowess of internet marketing. The study will give Nesch Mintec an opportunity to reap benefits in social media services which have grown to become a major force in the advertising industry. Also according to a research by Alhaddad, (2015), brand awareness has significant positive effects on brand image which is a picture that is imprinted in the customer so a study of this magnitude will enable the company to create a vivid picture in the minds of their customers. Minerals testing industry information in Tanzania has long been lagging in the mining industry and only large scale laboratories have been dominating the scene. It is against this background that the research will prove important. The research is also expected to improve the frontiers of knowledge in terms social media advertising in Tanzania and to remove the myth on social media being viewed only as a lifestyle networking tool. Scope and Delimitation of the Study The study was confined to social media as tool for creating awareness of Nesch Mintec Tanzania a micro entity company and the service under investigation is laboratory testing in the mining industry. This coverage might not be a true reflection on a global perspective but however it will be much applicable to the industry under study. Its sample span concentrated much on Nesch Mintec potential and current customers. 1.8 Conceptual Framework Source Researcher (2018) Figure 1.1 Conceptual Frame work The independent variables in this study are the aspects of social media that can create brand awareness these include message contents, frequency of posting media, length of media boosts, type of media shared(picture/video/text) and number of invites. Consumer response and purchase intentions depend much on creating a vivid picture in the minds of the customers and thus increase their awareness to the brand. In a company when the quality and number of publicities of successes is high, customers tend to be lured to make purchase decisions and ultimately develop intention to buy from that company. The creation of the brand image in the minds of consumers can be measured using number of followings, number of views, number of likes, number of new likes, post reach, number of comments, number of shares and number of mentions. These awareness aspects require that organisation engages in conversation with the customers by responding to queries and posting new products and services on the platform. Factors such as availability of internet connectivity, government policy on internet use, accessibility of media devices and cultural differences tend to affect the relationship between the independent and dependent variables for example a government can pass a law on telecommunication data charges this has an overall effect that there will be a reduction in the use of data services and ultimately communication on the social media platform. 1.9 Definition of key terms Social media Is a group of internet-based applications that allow for the creation and exchange of user generated content (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010). Brand awareness Is the eextent to which a brand is recognized by potential customers, and is correctly associated with a particular product (Business Dictionary , 2018). CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to review various theories and researches that have been done in the field of social media, brand awareness and marketing of product and services. These will be then used to map a theoretical framework for the investigation Brand A brand is a name, sign, symbol, sounds, term or any other feature that uniquely identifies one sellers product from those of other sellers goods or services (SEMPO, 2017). According to Karam Saydam, (2015) a brand is a physiological and emotional relationship between a firm and its customer, best brands inspires thoughts, feeling and sometimes-physiological reactions from a customer. A brand is a wellspring of a guarantee to its customers and it promises important separated profits, it does not only place itself into the buyers attention but also stimulate the buying effect on customers. 2.2.1 Elements of Brand Brand equity can be viewed as the set of assets (or liabilities) linked to the brand that add (or subtract) value. The value of these assets is dependent upon the consequences or results of the market places relationship with a brand and the elements include brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations, brand loyalty and other proprietary brand assets such as patents, trademarks, channel relationships (Antariksa, 2011). Brand loyalty is a measure of the attachment that a customer has to a brand, it reflects how likely a customer will be able to switch to another brand, especially when that brand makes a change, either in price or in product features.HYPERLINK http//www.studymarketing.org/category/Presentation_Slides/Powerpoint_Slides.html Brand awareness is a measure of familiarity of a brand.Perceived quality is when a brand is associated with a perception of overall quality not necessarily based on knowledge of detailed specifications. Perceived quality will directly influence purchase decisions and brand loyalty, especially when a buyer is not motivated or able to conduct a detailed analysis. Brand association is the underlying value of a brand name and is often based upon specific associations linked to it and when a brand is well positioned competitors will find it hard to attack. Other proprietary brand assets include patents, trademarks, and channel relationships (Aaker, 1999). According to Healy, (2010) branding can also be classified under five components which are storytelling, customer relationship, design, positioning and price and these can fit well in Aakers description of elements of the brand equity. This study will centre on the brand awareness element. 2.2.2 Brand Awareness Brand awareness is the extent to which a brand is recognized by potential customers, and is correctly associated with a particular product and can be expressed usually as a percentage of target market brand awareness is the primary goal of advertising in the early months or years of a products introduction (Business Dictionary , 2018). Brand awareness can be made by exhibition of brands to the customers who will help develop a push like response on them where they are able to recognize, remember, relate and make them aware of brands. Already established brands tend to use reinforcement techniques to build on their brand awareness strategies whilst for new products on the other hand make use of promotion tools such as advertising to increase the awareness of their product on the market of current and potential consumers of their product (Percy, Larry Rossiter, 2006). Brand awareness can be measured by a variety of methods but researchers normally use surveys, carried out on a sample of consumers asking about their knowledge of the brand or category of products and there are two types of recall test that are used mostly to measure brand awareness and these are unaided recall tests and aided recall test. Unaided recall tests where the respondent is presented with a product category and asked to nominate as many brands as possible. Thus, the unaided recall test provides the respondent with no clues or cues. These tests are used to test for brand recall (Hsia, 2015). In aided recall test the respondent is given a brand name and asked whether they have seen it or heard about it. In some aided recall tests, the respondent might also be asked to explain what they know about the brand e.g. to describe color, package, logo or other distinctive features. These tests are normally used to test for brand recognition. Other brand-effects tests in use are brand association tests, brand value, brand attitude, brand image, brand salience, brand dominance and other measures of brand health. Although these tests do not explicitly measure brand awareness, they provide general measures of brand health and often are used in conjunction with brand recall tests (Hsia, 2015). Brand awareness is also said to be a marketing concept that enables marketers to quantify levels of customer knowledge of the companys image and products or the percentage of customers who recognise or know a brand (Sundar Pandey, 2012). It can be summarised that brand awareness is a knowledge or recall of the companies products in the eyes and minds of the customer and marketers have a role to play in creating that imprint on the customers thoughts. Social media Social media are HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-mediated_communication o Computer-mediated communicationcomputer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information o Informationinformation, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_community o Virtual communityvirtual communities and HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_network o Virtual networknetworks (Obar Wildman, 2015). Social networks are set up for communication and sharing of issues of interest among groups or communities. Gummesson, (2002) reiterated that it is through continual communication started by the marketer on the social platforms that lengthens the friendship and maintains it between the business and the community as it allows people to comment on a topic and hence create a discussion forum. According to Palmer Lewis (2009), social media networks allow users to make personal web sites which can be viewed by others for exchange in personal information and for communication. Social media sites include but are not limited to LinkedIn, Facebook, Google, YouTube, Instagram and Twitter and these are growing and becoming dynamic as each day passes. 2.3.1 Social media platforms Social networking platforms are applications that enable users to connect by creating personal information profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to have access to those profiles, and sending e-mails and instant messages between each other. These personal profiles can include any type of information, including photos, video, audio files, and blogs and this normally forms the basis of classifying the social media platforms (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010). Table 2.1 Social media platforms and subscribers as of April 2017 Social media platformDate createdCurrent subscribers in the worldType of platformTwitter2006319,000,000Tweets/commentsYouTube 20051,000,000,000Video sharingLinkedIn 2002300,000,000Professionals sharing knowledgeFacebook20041,968,000,000Chats, groups and commentsInstagram2010600,000,000ChatsHYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WeChat o WeChatWe Chat 2011889,000,000Chats HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snapchat o SnapchatSnapchat 2011300,000,000Chats HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WhatsApp o WhatsAppWhatsApp 20091,200,000,000Messaging, chats and groups(Statista, 2018) Table 2.1 shows that Facebook, WhatsApp and Youtube have the greatest share of subscribers and their content include video sharing, messaging and groups it can also be inferred on the subscription statistics above that content does matter because even though some were created a long time ago such as LinkedIn they have been superseded in terms of subscribers by other recent sites. Communication is the important dimension of social media but not all social media platform types are suitable for all marketing purposes because as most of the platforms are not well suited for information movement, collaboration, and for growing better relationships (Fauser, Wiedenhofer, Lorenz, 2011). 2.3.2 Social Media Boosts Media boosts are a method of promotion on social media with paying and can also be called paid social media. It is different from organic reach which can reach only about 2 of the followers. In paid social media, social media platforms target anyone in a specific area or anyone looking for a specific subject resulting in paid posts reaching intended and unintended users. Whereas for organic reach there are no paid adverts and it will only reach intended followers. (Advance OHIO, 2018) 2.3.4 Social Media in Brand Awareness A research by Khan, (2012) on social media and brand awareness effects on purchasing choice of consumers showed that small and big companies are now shifting towards social media marketing as this increase level of exposure of their brands. Shruti Anukrati, (2013) in their research on social media and brand awareness found that social media is a strong and important interaction tool as it sells brands with a vast reach effect and promotes communication between people. The benefits of social media in brand awareness are vast and according to Jothi, Neelamalar, Prasad, (2011) benefits of social media advertising include popularizing your brand to the target group, informing audience about your brand in the market, encouraging competition in the market, creating social benefits for the brand and making the audience to interact with the brand. As opposed to traditional advertising which is customer centric social media popularizes the marketers brand and informs global audience thereby giving social benefits for the brand. And since customers are the ones who decide on the result of the advertising communication it is better to interact with them more especially on social media to create brand awareness (Vukasovi, 2013). It can be seen from the various literature above that brand awareness allows business entities to realise revenue by utilising the broad market offered by social media houses where customers are able to identify and recognise the product of a particular organisation by means of its symbol, name or any other feature that the organisation uses. Also from studies on impacts of social media on consumers it was found that trust has a great effect on intentions to purchase a product (Hajli, 2004). Theories Regarding Brand Awareness Signal Detection Theory is used in finding the components of brand awareness and likeability and it has a strong history in psychology, but is not commonly inferred in marketing and consumer behaviour. (Gewei Fred, 2004). In memory theory, brand awareness is an important step in building the bundle of associations which are attached to the brand, the brand is conceptualised as a node in memory which allows other information about the brand to be attached to it. Memory consists of a system of nodes that are linked to other nodes via pathways at different degrees of association (Sundar Pandey, 2012). In this research signal detection memory shall be used because it helps find the components of band as viewed by the customer. Empirical Literature Review Several studies have been done about social media impact on business for example Odhiambo, (2012) did a research in Finland whilst also looking at Kenya perspective on use of social media in marketing and brand awareness. The study involved a company called Itronic which is an Apple premium reseller, and with a Facebook connection of 1445, the Sales manager was interviewed with a questionnaire on social media strategy and brand awareness. The study found out that social media was effective in creating brand awareness and thus can offer potential for purchase intentions because of its viral nature of reaching many people at same time. However from the study it was shown that security was not guaranteed and although social media is effective it cannot be implemented alone without complementing it with other forms of traditional advertising. And the end result was that that social media alone cannot create brand awareness. (Odhiambo, 2012) Another study also by Hajli, (2004) in London included 500 participants through email and 300 paper questionnaires on impact of social media on consumers, all the participants were members of various social media platforms and a re-sampling method was used for the surveys. It was found that found that social media facilitate the social interaction of consumers, leading to increased trust and intention to buy and this and this can be because customers tend to rely on each other for referrals on product experience. Khan, (2012) also in his studies on brand awareness through social media marketing and its impact on purchasing decisions of customers did a mail survey using a structured questionnaire to 200 participants. The results of the research showed that companies that are most successful at social media use are those who interact frequently with the users and post content related to their brands. Interacting with customers reduces the communication gap on the company service delivery and customers expectations and makes customers much aware of the brand of the organisation. Another research work which focussed on building firm celebrity through social media was also conducted by Bria, (2013) on two private companies Intel and VICE where a case study method utilising snowballing technique to identify stakeholders was used. In this research it was found that social media may enable companies to get important strategic positions in industry. Once this is achieved this may finally lead to increase in popularity but she however suggested that there is need to further investigate on distinctive features across the social media and its implementation on other aspects. A research by Shruti Anukrati, (2013) on social media as a successful tool of brand awareness structured questionnaires were given during interviews with 200 respondents who shop through social networks in the area of Kota in India. The results showed that social media is a strong communication tool and requires that marketers interact more with their customers. In a research by Karam Saydam, (2015) on improving brand awareness and impacts on consumer behaviour in North Cyprus a survey was conducted with 115 questionnaires on fast food restaurants customers. The results showed that both traditional and social media positively influence brand awareness and also customer image increases awareness during interaction and involvement with the customer. The Research Gap With these various researches it has proven that there is a gap in terms of specificity of impacts of social media in relation to a company and a social media site in Tanzania. In Tanzania most studies in marketing especially at St Augustine University of Tanzania have concentrated on customer attitudes and satisfaction, integrated marketing and effective use of promotional tools in general. Also from the researches done so far in Tanzania and the rest of the world it can be observed that application of social media in brand awareness of testing laboratories or even mining industry have not been done. 2.7 Summary of Theoretical Framework This chapter explored the importance of social media as a tool of communication which in turn is a requirement to create a vivid brand which can be remembered by consumers for a long period of time and this is also known as the memory theory. Brand awareness has been noted to be a major element of brand equity as it leaves an imprint in the mind of consumer and attracts him/her to make a purchase decision. As the concluding part of the theoretical framework, the section connected the concepts of branding and social media to create a coherent foundation for the research. The highlighted information base will serve as a helpful resource for obtaining the answers to the research questions, on which the next chapter on methodology will further show. CHAPTER THREE METHOD AND DESIGN 3.1 Introduction This chapter presents the research methods and design adopted in the research it starts first from approach, design, procedure, and ends with data collection and analysis. 3.2 Research Design A research is carried out for a specific objective and purpose and thus researches can be classified as descriptive, explanatory and exploratory. Descriptive studies are formal and attempt to describe a situation, phenomenon, problem, service or agenda with stated hypothesis or investigated question. Explanatory research tries to establish and clarify why and how there is a relationship between two aspects of a situation or phenomenon. Exploratory study is mainly executed to establish what is happening, to find new views, to ask questions and to establish phenomenon in a new way (Blumberg et al, 2008). Explorative studies can be conducted by either searching the literature, interviewing experts in the subject, or by conducting focus group interviews (Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill, 2009). The objectives of exploration may be accomplished with either qualitative or quantitative research but exploration study relies more heavily on qualitative techniques (Blumberg et al, 2008). This study was exploratory in nature as it seeks to understand social media coverage and use in business and was both quantitative and qualitative. 3.3 Geographical area of study The study used an online survey method due to the virtual nature of the research and involved mainly East African states as they are major source areas for the customers. A questionnaire was given to walk in customers at Mwanza office and an interview of management representative of Nesch Mintec Tanzania was done. 3.4 Target Population The target population consists of Nesch Mintec current customers and Nesch Mintec Facebook account subscribers/fans/followers. The target population is taken as 50 customers who are in Nesch Mintec Database and these shall be used for checking brand awareness. The study also involved interview of the Nesch Mintec management 3.5 Sample Size Blumberg et al, (2008) describes a good sample as one that represents the characteristics of the population it purports to represent and this means it must be accurate, valid and precise without systematic variances or systematic bias. In this study since the population is finite for walk in customers which is about 50 the sample size can be calculated using a formula formulated by Yamane, (1967) QUOTE Where n Size of the sample, N is the population50 and e is the acceptable error 5 at a confidence level of 95. This formula gives a sample sizes of 44 which was the target for both online and walk in customers. For online survey the questionnaire was shared to 220 respondents which was a target of 20 response rate 3.6 Sampling strategies Sampling allows the researcher to reduce the amount of information they should collect by considering only data from a subgroup rather than all possible scenarios and sampling also saves time (Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill, 2009). Sampling methods can be classified as either probability or non-probability sampling, the sampling method for this study was non-probability given the nature of the study which is exploratory and varied in terms of geography, age and exposure. Also Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill, (2009) reiterates that an in-depth study of this nature requires that the sample be as representative as possible so that it provides the researcher with an information-rich survey that explore the research question. For division of the sample a part was walk in customers and the other part was online Nesch Mintec Facebook followers to ensure an even distribution. For walk in customers respondents were chosen systematically i.e. the 5th customer in a day from 15 May to 15 June 2018 was given a questionnaire to complete at the reception. For online survey a total of 220 questionnaires were shared on Whats app, and Facebook platforms and an online survey platform Survey Monkey was used to collect views in the same period from 15 May to 15 June 2018. 3.7 Sources of data The research design is important for fulfilling objectives and answering research questions. Data from different sources such as books, journals and articles were used in order to minimize the chances of getting weak methods while pooling together information from diverse sources to give accurate results. The focus of exploratory research is to establish what is happening, to find new views, to ask questions and to establish phenomenon in a new way in this case the impact of social media on brand awareness shall be investigated in terms of accessibility exposure, security and current trends on a global perspective. The interview questionnaires shall be based on theoretical framework and will be given to three different people to check the reliability and strength of the questionnaires. The research work also involved online survey of clients and monitoring of company social media Facebook platform for reaches, post reach and likes 3.8 Data collection techniques Many data collection approaches can be used for exploratory investigations of management questions and case studies relies on many different sources of data resulting as a result of triangulation (Blumberg et al, 2008). Case studies allow the combination of different sources of evidence, for example documents and archives, interviews, and observation. Interviews are the most widely used source for collecting information for evidence and case study interview are often unstructured unlike surveys which are structured. Documents are articles, reports, internal memos and newspapers. Archives records are also an important source of information and examples include customer survey data, database of customers, online comments or activities and charts. Data collection for this study was based on hand given questionnaires, an online survey and interview of the Chief Operations Officer. 3.9 Data analysis strategies Measuring of impact shall be done by getting responses from various clients of Nesch Mintec on its Facebook social media platform and other responses such as the frequency of conversations, number of followings, number of views, number of likes, number of new likes, post reach, number of comments, number of shares and number of mentions. Information on company social media strategy was found from interview of the COO of Nesch Mintec. . Analysis of data for quantitative aspects was done using statistical techniques for the data in the research 3.10 Limitations Though the research considered various literature and methods it cannot be generalized for the whole population as it is industry specific to the mining industry in Tanzania and Nesch Mintec customers. 3.11 Ethical Considerations In order that the research will be ethical permission has been sought from the management of Neschmintec Tanzania. Participation shall be on a voluntary basis and the participants will be advised that the survey shall be for research purposes only and information will not be used for anything else besides the intended use. Personal information of participant shall be kept as confidential as possible and results shall be provided both to the management and participants in an acceptable and approved manner. CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS, DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.0 Introduction This chapter gives the research findings and a link between theoretical and empirical data in relation to the research findings. To understand the general profile of respondents a questionnaire was given to online and walk in customers in the months of May and June 2017. For walk in customers the 5th customer daily from 15 May to 15 June 2018 was given a questionnaire to complete at the reception and total of 44 customers were completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 100. For online survey a total of 220 questionnaires were shared on Whats app, and Facebook platforms and an online survey platform Survey Monkey was used to collect views in the same period from 15 May to 15 June 2018. A total of 55 responded to the survey giving a response rate of 25. And for analysis of current media platforms, an analysis was done for Facebook posts posted from August 2017 to January 2018 in this case there were 7 posts and two of them were boosted (further paid for online promotion by the website). All of the three people given to check the interview questionnaires felt that it was reliable and strong. 4.1 General Characteristics of Respondents To understand the general characteristics of respondents such as age, gender level of education type of business respondents were requested for general information before getting into the mood of the research questionnaires. a. By Questionnaires Table 4.1 General Characteristics of Respondents Age(yrs)GenderLevel of educationBelow 2525-40Above 40MaleFemaleSecondary/primaryDiploma/ certificateBachelor degreeMasters and PHDwalk in/10454580203535300online/107020100010403020average/10.057.532.5901022.537.530.010.0 A greater percentage of the respondents have an age of 25-40 years and most of the respondents are men, however there 45 of walk in customers are above 40 years. For the company this is a mature generation that can help in keeping the brand alive. Nesch Mintec female brand followers are few averagely 10 and this brings non exploited territory for awareness of the brand. The findings on greater percentage being young respondents on online media confirms findings of Bria, (2014) enunciation that young people are fast learners and are able to adapt to technology quickly and thus they have a greater share on the social media platforms. Figure 4.1 Respondents by age and mode of data collection A question was also asked to determine the nature of business which the respondents were involved in as follows Q1. What type of business are you involved in Table 4.2 Responses for type of business Mining sectorManufacturing sectorLaboratory TestingOthers (please state)walk in/600400online/4005010average/500455 A greater percentage of the respondents are in the mining sector and laboratory testing this shows the company is well known for mining services and laboratory testing and this is where the brand is strongest in. b. By social media online media posts Table 4.3 Responses for gender age and country for online posts Gender Age group/yrs Countries FemaleMale2525-4445Tanzania Uganda Kenya boost 1/ video31.5068.5012711775.0018.007.00boost 2/ photo31.468.659365972.001 For the online media posts females also show a lower percentage than males, the common age group for online medias following is 25-44years 71 for video and 25years 59 for photos. The greatest following is also in Tanzania than any of the other two countries where respondents are drawn from this might be partly due to the fact that the company is registered in Tanzania and its social media friends are more in Tanzania. 4.2 Findings by research objectives The research had 4 research objectives and these were addressed using interview questionnaires and online social media monitoring. RO-1 To determine the various platforms of social media and their significance on marketing service products at Nesch Mintec Tanzania Three questions which were based on knowledge on first instance, view on best social media platform and sharing of promotion information were asked in order to get information of various platforms and their significance to marketing the companys services Q2. How did you know about Nesch Mintec on your first instance Table 4.4 Responses Knowledge on first instance Social mediaPrint mediaRadio and televisionWord of mouthOthers specifywalk in/301030300online/500102020average/405202510 40 of the respondents responded that they first knew of Nesch Mintec on social media. However, a fair share also responded that they knew of it through radio and televisions and word of mouth. Information on promotion of services and products can be found on different advertising Medias and the company has to identify which one suits best or which can be used in combination. Q3. Which social media platforms do you think can be effectively used by Nesch Mintec Table 4.5 Responses on effective social media platform LinkedInFacebookYoutubeWhats appOthers(please state)walk in/52525450online/305010100average/17.537.517.527.50.0 On effectiveness of social media platforms walk in customers believed that Whats app is the best whilst 50 of online respondents believed Facebook was the most effective. Overally 37.5 believed Facebook platform was the most effective thereby reaffirming the management choice of investing in Facebook marketing and brand awareness. Q4. When you get information of products of Nesch Mintec how would you share it Table 4.6 Responses on sharing of product information Social mediaPrint mediaRadio and televisionWord of mouthOthers specifywalk in/451030150online/8010010average/62.510.015.012.50.0 On sharing of products information 62.5 believed that social media was the best this might be mainly due to its ability to reach many people at the same time.RO-2 To identify social media platform used by Nesch Mintec On this objective an interview an interview was done on the Nesch Mintec COO and the data collected from the interview was checked by analysing Facebook posts which were posted from August 2017 to January 2018 in this case there were 7 posts. The following information was collected. a. By interview with company representative Nesch Mintec Director was interviewed and his background in business showed that he knew the marketing strategies for the company. On further information he also said that he was responsible for online content posting and management on the companys social media platforms. The company offers laboratory testing services for mineral and other industrial chemicals besides also offering mining consultancy services and it was formed in February 2014. The company uses a Facebook account named Nesch Mintec Laboratory services to promote its business with close to 130,000 connected to the page. The typical customers are from East Africa with Tanzania contributing the most, 18-65 years of age. The company has 100 offline sales with no customers doing online sales. The major methods of promotion and advertising that are used by the company are social media adverts and the company website is linked to its Facebook platform and its social media platform is used for advertising and creating brand awareness however the media platform is less than 1 year old. Among the benefits agreed to be cost effectiveness and direct reach to potential customers. Major challenges faced have to do followers posting irrelevant content on the Facebook platform but no measures are being currently pursued to ensure brand security. The company also uses other advertising Medias such as Radio and print media with the radio having a success rate of 60 and all the marketing channels are used in the integrated marketing system in order to get maximum benefits being used for b. By analysis of media platform content The social media posts on Nesch Mintec Facebook platform gave the following findings i. Analysis by media platform Table 4.7 Analysis by media platform Post datePost typePromotion typeReach numberClicks / actionsLikes/ reactionsShares Comment Post clicks9-Aug-17photoinformational5640692469207112817903-Dec-17photoinformational401191720717-Dec-18photoprofile photo update0330033-Jan-18videoadvert1307529178692721130943-Jan-18photosadvert135440076-Jan-18videoadvert29014112115 On physical analysis of the social media platforms it showed that people preferred videos to pictures on the type of media content posted and also followers preferred informational content to adverts and would tend to click or react to these types of content. Videos had a great sharing rate and comments than other promotions. ii. By Media boots The results also showed the power of boosted media where the 9 August post and the 3 January post were boosted (paid adverts) and they received a large number of audience. Also it can be observed that even for the 2 boosted posts the video post had a greater number of reactions and audience reach as shown below Figure 4.2 Respondents by boosted posts by type of media iii) By media reach and reaction The analysis also showed that even though quite a large audience can be reached on social media, only a small fraction clicked or reacted as shown below for unboosted promotions. Figure 4.3 Respondents by media reach and reaction RO-3 To determine the level of brand awareness of Nesch Mintec A question was asked to respondents on the survey Q5. To what extent do you think the Nesch Mintec brand is known by its potential customers Table 4.8 Response for knowledge of brand Response for knowledge of brand Least ExtentModerate ExtentLarge Extentwalk in/256015online/106030average/17.56022.5 60 of the respondents believe that Nesch Mintec is moderately known by its potential customers and great effort has to be done to promote the Nesch Mintec brand. a small percentage 17.5 also thought that the Nesch Mintec brand is known to least extent. Figure 4.4 Respondents by knowledge of brand RO-4 To assess the use of social media as means of creating brand awareness of Nesch Mintec A question was asked to find out whether other media can compete with other social media and the following were the responses Q6. What do you think Nesch Mintec should do to increase awareness of its brand Table 4.9 Response on proposed method of creating brand awareness Shift to social media advertisingContinue with traditional advertising methodsCombine traditional and social media methodswalk in/103555online/00100average/517.577.5 Figure 4.5 Respondents by proposed method of creating brand awareness 77.5 of the respondents believed that Nesch Mintec should combine traditional and social media methods. 100 of online respondents believed both traditional and social media should be used this high response might be because they had experienced the drawbacks of online medias whereas walk in customers had some reservations. This can be due to the fact that no one size fits all for advertising. This result also confirms a study by Karam Saydam, (2015) which showed that both traditional and social media positively influence brand awareness CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.0 Introduction This chapter outlines the conclusions and recommendations of the study. 5.1 Conclusions 5.1.1. Respondents believed that Nesch Mintec can utilise social media platforms such as LinkedIn, Youtube and Whats app but however 37.5 which was the greatest percentage believed Facebook was more effective in creating brand awareness. 5.1.2. Nesch Mintec mainly uses the Facebook platform of social media to market their services and it has proven to be significant for the company marketing promotions with over 130,000 followers. The Facebook was popular in creating brand awareness especially when it was under paid social media (media boost) and when the media content was a video. 5.1.3. The Nesch Mintec is known to a moderate extent according to 60 of respondents 5.1.4. According to the study 77.5 of the respondents believed that social media alone cannot create brand awareness but a combinational of social media and traditional advertising should be used for creating brand awareness of Nesch Mintec. 5.2 Recommendations 5.2.1 Nesch Mintec should target the age group 25-40 for creating brand awareness and should utilise videos and boosting of social media posts to attract a larger number of brand followers. 5.2.2 Nesch Mintec should utilise both traditional and social media in creating its brand awareness REFERENCES Aaker, D. (1999). Managing Brand Equity. New York The Free Press. Advance OHIO. (2018, May 25). Retrieved June 16, 2018, from Organic vs Paid Social Media https//www.advance-ohio.com/organic-vs-paid-social-media/ Alhaddad, A. A. (2015). The Effect of Advertising Awareness on Brand Equity in Social Media. International Journal of e-Education, e- Business, e-Managemnt, e-Learning , 5 (2). Antariksa, Y. (2011). 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APPENDIX 1 LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES TOC h z t Caption c HYPERLINK l _Toc519546175 Figure 1.1 Conceptual Frame work PAGEREF _Toc519546175 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546176 Table 2.1 Social media platforms and subscribers as of April 2017 PAGEREF _Toc519546176 h 14 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546177 Table 4.1 General Characteristics of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc519546177 h 27 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546178 Figure 4.1 Respondents by age and mode of data collection PAGEREF _Toc519546178 h 28 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546179 Table 4.2 Responses for type of business PAGEREF _Toc519546179 h 28 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546180 Table 4.3 Responses for gender age and country for online posts PAGEREF _Toc519546180 h 29 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546181 Table 4.4 Responses Knowledge on first instance PAGEREF _Toc519546181 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546182 Table 4.5 Responses on effective social media platform PAGEREF _Toc519546182 h 31 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546183 Table 4.6 Responses on sharing of product information PAGEREF _Toc519546183 h 32 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546184 Table 4.7 Analysis by media platform PAGEREF _Toc519546184 h 34 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546185 Figure 4.2 Respondents by boosted posts by type of media PAGEREF _Toc519546185 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546186 Figure 4.3 Respondents by media reach and reaction PAGEREF _Toc519546186 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546187 Table 4.8 Response for knowledge of brand Response for knowledge of brand PAGEREF _Toc519546187 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546188 Figure 4.4 Respondents by knowledge of brand PAGEREF _Toc519546188 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546189 Table 4.9 Response on proposed method of creating brand awareness PAGEREF _Toc519546189 h 38 HYPERLINK l _Toc519546190 Figure 4.5 Respondents by proposed method of creating brand awareness PAGEREF _Toc519546190 h 38 APPENDIX 2 QUESTIONNAIRE Please place a tick under your selection in the spaces provided below Age(yrs)GenderLevel of educationBelow 2525-40Above 40Male FemaleSecondary/primary Diploma/ certificateBachelor degreeMasters and PHD 1. What type of business are you involved in Mining sectorManufacturing sectorLaboratory TestingOthers (please state) 2. How did you know about Nesch Mintec on your first instance Social mediaPrint mediaRadio and televisionWord of mouthOthers specify 3. Which social media platforms do you think can be effectively used by Nesch Mintec LinkedInFacebookYoutubeWhats appOthers(please state) 4. When you get information of products of Nesch Mintec how would you share it Social mediaPrint mediaRadio and televisionWord of mouthOthers specify 5. To what extent do you think the Nesch Mintec brand is known by its potential customers Least ExtentModerate ExtentLarge Extent 6. What do you think Nesch Mintec should do to increase awareness of its brand Shift to social media advertisingContinue with traditional advertising methodsCombine traditional and social media methods QUESTIONNAIRE (Nesch Mintec Management Representative) Please answer the following questions Section A ABOUT THE COMPANY THE BUSINESS 1. Can you introduce yourself and your company 2. What type services does your company offer 3. When was the company formed 4. Does your company have Facebook account to promote its business 5. How many people are connected to your company on Facebook 6. Can you give the demographical details of your customers Section B SOCIAL MEDIA AND BRAND AWARENESS 1. Can you tell me the methods of promotion and advertising that you use 2. Do you use social media for marketing/brand awareness 3. For how long have you been using social media as a tool for creating brand awareness 4. What are the benefits of using social media brand awareness to your company 5. What are the problems faced by your company in using social media advertising And what measures have you taken in ensuring that your brand is secure online 6. Do you use any other forms of advertising apart from online advertising if yes name these other brand awareness and promotion media 7. Can you rate these channels in terms of their success on a scale of 1-10 8. How do you formulate your integrated marketing and brand awareness 10 September 2017 Director Nesch Mintec TZ Plot 27 Block E Mukuyuni Industrial Area Mwanza Tanzania For Your Attention H. Nesvinga REQUEST FOR PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH ON NESCH MINTEC CUSTOMERS My name is Prosper Munemo and I am a Masters in Business Administration student at the St Augustine University of Tanzania. The research I wish to conduct for my Masters dissertation involves SOCIAL MEDIA USE AS A TOOL OF CREATING BRAND AWARENESS IN TANZANIA MINING INDUSTRY A CASE OF NESCH MINTEC TANZANIA. This project will be conducted under the supervision of Sr Bandiho (SAUT, Tanzania). I am hereby seeking your consent to approach and interact with your customers both physically and on your social network platform. I have provided you with a copy of my dissertation proposal which includes copies of the consent and assent forms to be used in the research process, as well as a copy of the approval letter which I received from the SAUT. Upon completion of the study, I undertake to provide your company with a bound copy of the full research report. If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me on 255769019049 and [email protected] Thank you for your time and consideration in this matter. Yours sincerely, Prosper Munemo St Augustine University of Tanzania PAGE MERGEFORMAT 50 Independent Variables -Message Contents/status – Frequency of posting media – Length of time of media boost – Type of media shared (Picture/video/text) – Number of invites to public Intervening Variables Availability of internet Government policy on internet use Accessibility of media devices Cultural differences Cost of internet services Dependant Variables – Number of followings – Number of views – Number of likes – Post reach -Number of comments – Number of shares -Number of mentions 9 Hm)t(Eil [email protected])25Z.bQTwQTS GwZbEoGj38Nkw 9sX)RQ1Es0vEOKJo8wLORfFFjLn Va_R7)yGJabSOZ1YmRyjYq,17N45WuhaZdkBMLG4mO,[email protected] ,[email protected]
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