Executive Summary This case study is mainly focused on the problems faced during the design and construction phase of Bhakra Nangal Dam located in northern part of India across the Sutlej river

Executive Summary

This case study is mainly focused on the problems faced during the design and construction phase of Bhakra Nangal Dam located in northern part of India across the Sutlej river. The prime focus of engineers is on the flooding situation that was occurred due to the snow melting of Himalaya or in monsoon season due to access of flow of water and bringing disaster to entire countryside. At this circumstance, they also want to harvest that access unused and wasted water of river Sutlej valley dam into a big irrigation purpose for the major devasted states are Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab. For the record purposes, the flood frequency analysis of the Sutlej River has been done by different methods. The study has been done to find out the peak flood for a certain return period and to find out how often a flood of a certain magnitude occur, from the collected data.

Introduction
Bhakra is exquisite structures worked as solid gravity Dam over the Sutlej stream, Latitude at 31° 25′ 00″ N and Longitude at 76° 24′ 00”, closer to the outskirt amongst Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in the north piece of India. The development of this undertaking was begun in 1948 and was finished in October 1963. This structure, spreading over the restricted pleasant canyon at the foot of the mountain, needs to rise 680 feet, sheer from the rough bed of the Sutlej and keep running crosswise over for 1700 feet at its best. At the end of the day, almost three Qutab Miners should be moved to achieve the highest point of the Bhakra Dam. At the bed level, it will have a powerful width of 625 feet. To permit the undesirable surge waters to stream over the dam, focal spillway 260 feet since a long time ago controlled by four steel entryways will be introduced. To discharge water for motivations behind water system from the Bhakra Reservoir, 10 outlets will be given in every one of two levels at ascertained statures. Between these outlets, 106,000 cubic feet for every second can be let out for inundating fields downstream and in a blend with the spillway, altogether 290,000 cubic feet of water can be let out of the supply at a given moment.

The Bhakra Reservoir will have the capacity to store 7.4 million-section of land feet of water-enough to cover the cultivable zone year of the Indian State of Punjab under one foot of water each year. Be that as it may, this water, be that as it may, won’t be accessible for coordinate usage, claiming 1.7 million-section of land feet at the base of the supply should be considered a consistent aggregation of the residue brought around the stream from its Himalayan catchment. Hence, the water system framework has been decided for just 5.7 million-section of land feet. Some portion of the water discharged for water system from the Bhakra Reservoir is planned to create a control at the foot of the dam.

Nangal Dam
The Nangal Dam, 8 miles downstream from the Bhakra Dam site, which was the first to be attempted for development and which was finished in 1951, not just serves to redirect the managed spill out of the Bhakra Reservoir into the Nangal Hydel Canal yet additionally goes about as an adjusting store for the powerhouses that will be situated on the Nangal Hydel Canal.

Nangal Canal and Power Houses
The Nangal Hydel Canal is a water system cum-Power channel which conveys water to the Bhakra Irrigation System and creates hydroelectric power. In estimate, it is one of the greatest at any point attempted in the Punjab State, maybe unprecedented on the planet. Intended to convey 14,500 cubic feet of water every second for the first 9,700 feet of its length, and 12,500 cubic feet for each second from there on, this lined waterway will have a profundity of 20.6 feet and will be around 140 feet wide at the best a man-made stream. It takes off on the left bank of the Sutlej over the Nangal Dam and runs parallel to the stream through the tough sub hilly districts of the Shivalik foot Hills, navigating various gorges and slope downpours in its way. overall, there will be 58 such intersections, a significant number of which require the channel to be conveyed at an impressive stature over the ground level. The incline of the channel from the Nangal Dam has been designed to the point that the more extreme normal slant of the encompassing can be made utilization of to make fake falls along the trench by methods for which hydropower can be created. There will be two powerhouses at the twelfth and eighteenth miles of the waterways with an introduced limit of 48000 kilowatts. in each. The arrangement has been made for the establishment of an extra unit of 24,000 kW. in every one of the power houses.
The Irrigation System
The Bhakra Canal network will make a system of major and minor channels racing to an aggregate length of 2,890 miles. The primary feeder trench of this network, the Bhakra Main Line will take off from the tail of the Nangal Hydel Canal and will be 108 miles solitary fixed with impenetrable tile workmanship containing a sand-witched layer of mortar all through its length. From this will stretch out the primary courses of the network, connecting like veins to lead 12,500 cubic feet for every second of much-required water to the dry terrains on both sides.

Salient Features of Bhakra Dam
The material properties of concrete dam and foundation rock used in the case study are given at below table. For this purpose, the density of water taken as 1000kg/cu.meter to consider hydrostatic pressure on the upstream face. The compressive strength of concrete FC is assumed 20 N/mm2.
Location
Area Near Village Bhakra Dist. Bilaspur HP, India
Latitude 31° 25′ 00″ N
Longitude 76° 24′ 00” E
River basin Indus

Dam
Type of Dam Concrete straight gravity
Elevation at Top of Dam El 518.16 m (1790 feet)
Maximum Height above the deepest foundation level 225.55 m (740 feet)
Maximum Height of dam above river bed 167.64 m (550 feet)
Length at top 518.16 m (1700 feet)
Width at top 9.14 m (30 feet)
Length at bottom 99 m (325 feet)
Width at base 190.5 m (625 feet)
Elevation at top of dam above mean sea level 518.16 m (1700 feet)
Steel used 101600 tons (100000 tons)

Reservoir
Catchment area 56980 Sq. kilometers.
Normal reservoir level EL. 512.06 meters (EL.1680 feet)
Dead storage level EL.445.62 meters.
New area irrigated 60 lakh acres.
Area of reservoir. 162.48 sq. kilometers (62.78 sq. Miles)
Length of reservoir. 96.56 kilometers.
Live storage capacity at EL.1680 ft. 6911 million cum (5.60 MAF)
Gross storage capacity at EL.1680 ft. 9340 million cum (7.57 MAF)
Dead storage capacity 2430 million cum (1.97 MAF)

River Outlets & Flood Control Gates
Number of outlets. 16 in two tiers of 8 each at EL.1320 & EL.1420
Size of outlets 2.64 m x 2.64 m (8.67 ft. x 8.67 ft.)
Shape of outlets Horseshoe shape
Maximum discharge per outlet
Outlets at EL.402.33 meters (EL.1320 ft.) 187.97 cumecs (6638 cusecs)
Outlets at EL.432.80 meters (EL.1420 ft.) 160.10 cumecs (5656 cusecs)
Number and sizw of flood control gates. 4 nos. 15.24m x 14.5m (50 ft. x 47.5ft.)
Maximum design discharge through gates. 5587 cumecs (1997300 cusecs)
Bhakra Power Plants
Number of power houses 2
Installed capacity of left bank power plant 450 MW – 5 units of 90 MW each
Increased capacity of left bank power plant by uprating the machines. 540 MW – 5 units of 108 MW each
Installed capacity of right bank power plant. 600 MW – 5 units of 120 MW each
Increased capacity of right bank power plant Uprated to 660 MW – 5 units of 132 MW each
Present capacity by further uprating the machines. 735 MW – 3 units of 157 MW each & 2 units of 132 MW each
Planned uprated capacity. 785 MW – 5 units of 157 MW.

Stakeholders of Bhakra Project
NO. Stakeholder Name
1 Owner Bhakra-Control Board
Govt. of Punjab
Govt. of Rajasthan
Govt. of Haryana
2 Construction Manager All the Chief Engineers
Dr. A.N.Khosla and Er. Kanwar Sain,
3 Developer Bhakra-Control Board
& Indian Engineers of the Dept. of Irrigation.
4 Designers (A/E) International Company Inc. USA
5 Contractors Mr. M.Harvey Slocum & team USA
6 Community People of Punjab, Rajasthan
And Haryana
7 Ministry of Finance, Government of India Joint Secretary
8 Central Water and Power Commission, Government of India Chairman
9 Local Wildlife Pets, Birds and aquatic animals

Planning and Design
The proposition to build a capacity reservoir on the Sutlej first time began in a note dated 8 November 1908 by Sir Louis Dane showing Suni and Badu Gorges as being positive destinations for dams for capacity and power improvement. An itemized provide details regarding this proposition was submitted in March 1910. Notwithstanding, the evaluated cost of the venture was viewed as restrictive and the task was retired.

The 1919 undertaking report accommodated the capacity of the unutilized satluj water amid the time of abundance stream and basically comprised of the accompanying four major works: successively Bhakra Dam, Upper Sirhind Canal, Lower Sirhind Canal, and The Western Yamuna Canal Extension.

The proposed dam was to be 120.40m (395 ft) high situated around 69 km (43 miles) from Ropar nearly at an indistinguishable place from where the present dam has been developed. It accommodated a most extreme stockpiling of 3182.38 million m3 (2.58 million-section of land ft). The task was completely upheld by topographical examinations did by the Geological Survey of India. The 1919 venture, in any case, never emerged and was retired for the Sutlej Valley Project authorized in 1919. A proposition of the Project amid 1920-1938 The 1919 Project despite the fact that not sought after further, brought about a progression of examinations and examination of the Bhakra Gorge by prominent Geologists and Engineers. In December 1924, the Chief Geologist to the Attock Oil Co. examined the site and, on his proposals, floats were uncovered on the two banks of the waterway over the late spring surge level to uncover unweathered shake at the dam site.

Also making arrangements for venture report was resubmitted with nitty gritty report by various boss specialists successively in 1939 by Dr. A.N. Khosla, in 1944 by Dr. J.L. Savage, the then Chief Engineer, United States Bureau of Reclamation was asked for by the Punjab Government to look at the site and cover the achievability of development of a dam with greatest supply level at El.487.68m (1,600 ft) and in 1945-47 under the supervision of Dr. F.A. Nickell, an American Geologist of impressive experience and gave point by point land data to the resulting configuration work.

In 1945-46, report arranged by the International Engineering Co. Denver, U.S.A. concerning plans, with the greatest store at El.481.58 m (1,580 ft).

Also, in the middle of 1948-1951 last proposition of the Project is submitted when water system and power requests of the parceled province of Punjab on the Indian side additionally expanded, the topic of the tallness of the dam, the best height which was settled at El. 487.68 m (1,600 ft) just to keep the submergence of Bilaspur town, was checked on and it was chosen to develop the dam to the most extreme safe ideal stature as controlled by establishment shake conditions, in order to completely misuse water system and power potential.

In 1951, a reconsidered venture report put together by the Irrigation Branch of Public Works Department (PWD) of Punjab and International Company Inc. The USA. was set up for the 207.26 m (680 ft) high, straight gravity dam.

In their last proposition there are a few units have been built as principle collection of dam starting as Bhakra Dam and Power Plants, Nangal Dam, Nangal Hydel Channel, Ganguwal and Kotla Power Houses on the Nangal Hydel Channel, Remodeling of Ropar Headworks, Remodeling of Sirhind Canal, Bhakra Canals, Bist Doab Canal, Transmission and conveyance arrangement of electrical vitality, and Development of business sectors and correspondences of Bhakra zone.

Therefore, with the above proposition, Bhakra Nangal Project took the state of a genuine multi-reason venture, giving water system and power age as its fundamental advantages and offices for surge counteractive action, entertainment and fish culture as coincidental points of interest.

Construction
The Construction Phase of Bhakra-Nangal Project began amid 1951 to 1963. In the beginning period of project design of rail-head was begun in 1946 and street organize developed was begun in 1947 to Ropar Punjab to Nangal, and on that way, the fundamental foundation began coming up simply after 1948.

Two extremely fundamental choices were taken by Indian Planners and Engineers. One was to assemble the Bhakra Canal System first in inclination to Bhakra Dam and the other to develop the Dam departmentally with the assistance of remote specialists. Despite the fact that USBR (United States Bureau of Reclamation) outlined advisor for Bhakra Dam, the execution came in the hands of Indian Engineers of the Dep’t. of Irrigation. The undeniable development movement began simply after April 1952 when Mr. M.Harvey Slocum landed with his group of development experts and specialists from America.

This is the greatest multipurpose venture of India beside the Narmada. It was developed with the co-activity of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Its cost of development was Rs. 2,380 million. The possibility of development of Dam goes to Sir Louis Dane, the then Lieutenant Governor of Punjab. The aggregate territory secured by the Bhakra Dam is around 168 sq. km, of which 90% is the piece of Bilaspur and 10% of the region has a place with the Una locale. The development of the Dam started in the year 1948 and was finished in 1963.

The dam 518-meter-long and 226-meter-high were developed at Bhakra on stream Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh. The Nangal dam in Punjab is just 29 meters high. Here a Canal 63 km long has been built. Two powerhouses-Ganguwal and Kotla have been developed on Nangal hydel channel. A simulated lake called Gobind Sagar has been made. This lake collects water of R. Sutlej and R. Beas. The limit of the entire venture is 1204 megawatt.
Problem
Although, this tremendous structure has a multiple list of significant aspects, Bhakra-Nangal was an overdeveloped dam. The main problem that I found in my research work was water logging and salinization in the Bhakra command region. Foremost of the downstream region of Nangal and Rupar due to the diversion of water their region is dominated by silt and clay, due to that siltation live capacity is lost by 10%. This type of bad effect delivers the fertile soil into unproductive. It brings in notice that every year around 2 million tons of salt has estimated in Haryana canal.

The second problem that I found in my research was Submerged land. Due to the Bhakra project around 10000 acres of agricultural land and 20000 acres of forest land submerged into the catchment are. With this circumstance, about 371 village people displace from different province of Punjab and Haryana.

The third problem that I found in my research was sedimentation as well as siltation. For any reservoir it is natural and unavoidable process. In Indus river basin there are also considerable amount of sediment occurred due to deforestation, excavation, quarrying, mining, construction etc. In the case of Bhakra reservoir sediment was estimated at 2417.7 Ha.m or 19600-acre feet. It was also estimated that full silting would take place in 535 years. Irrigation benefits were expected to be affected after 25% silting of the live storage, which was calculated to be after 135 years. In 286 years, 50% silting of live storage was anticipated.

There was other issue with wood transport is also happened on the project. Because of the river Sutlej has been the cheapest means of transporting woods from the Himalayan forests down to the plains. But since the dam is very high above the river water level, it has become impossible to use this river for this purpose. There are several problems which identified as, the suggested region to be irrigated by this project had been badly exaggerated.
To fulfill the irrigation crisis in 1950s- the proposed Bhakra dam planning was going badly as post completion cost estimates was not considered for the irrigation canal system. As the engineers incorrectly considered the cost of structure construction that has irrigation capability with the diverting and storing water as final distributaries to catchment area. The reason behind that is the lack of experience in various states of chief engineer as well as planners. Due to that the budget cost overrun as well as crisis placed in center stage where high scale irrigation problem occurred.

Problem Statement
Bhakra project is failed to prove his virtue of design as the reportedly resubmitted planning was not fully satisfied its design because of that the mean storage available from Bhakra reservoir was calculated to be 4.631 MAF against a requirement of 6.207 MAF resulting in a shortage of about 25.4%.

Solution
Although the project was reportedly resubmitted many times, but from the land acquisition side all land in north part of Bhakra has same kind issues. For the provisions of water logging we have to consider solution of mainly two types- for the vertical drainage called as surface drainage is removed with simple pump out method. And for horizontal drainage called as sub-surface drainage, we must set up series of perforated pipes which is dig inside the ground and draws out excess water.
To prevent salinization of soil is to prevent waterlogging, since water logging is responsible for drawing out the salts from the soil. Another important way to prevent salinity is to avoid irrigation with saline ground water.
Out of the 7209 families, 5030 opted for cash compensation under the terms of Land Acquisition Act and resettled elsewhere on their own. Of the total land acquired, 14200 acres was forest land, 30240-acre land was revenue land and 27516-acre land were privately owned land. For the urban displaced, a new town of Bilaspur was built just 2 km away on the high land overlooking the old town and two thousand urban families resettled here.
To mitigate the reservoir sedimentation, we must measure Watershed management activities in the catchment area, Creation of off- channel auxiliary/ retarding reservoirs, Creation of bypass canals to divert sediment- laden flows around the reservoir and Removal of silt by mechanical means.
The problem is overcome by bringing logs of woods from Govind Sagar to Nangal railway station by means of an aerial rope-way. This is about St miles long. A wooden log loom has been put across Govind Sagar to obstruct timber. From there, the timber is taken by the inclined carriage way to the loading station on the upstream of the right side.

Critique of Chosen Solution
The chosen critique solution for this given project is deliver based on Construction Management theory approach. For this project, it is always necessary to avoid and overcome as much as uncertainty as possible when planning project can be difficult process. Some of these difficulties includes: poorly defined scope of works, inadequate risk assessment, time uncertainty and cost analysis. For the success of project, it is required to follow the project management plan accordingly. Cost analysis is always crucial in success of project. Therefore, it is prime step to make appropriate estimation at the pre-planning of project. As being able to handle the project not to go overrun and completed on time is matter of establishing guidelines. Costs can be control through the efforts of all stakeholder, appropriate use of equipment and technologies and resource management.
For this given project it is necessary to develop techniques related to water bodies as well as ground water reclamation.