CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1


1.1 Objective
Security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In the general sense, security is a concept similar to safety. The nuance between the two is an added emphasis on being protected from dangers that originate from outside. Individuals or actions that encroach upon the condition of protection are responsible for the breach of security. The word “security” in general usage is synonymous with “safety,” but as a technical term “security” means that something not only is secure but that it has been secured. This project is designed with ATmega328. This Project presents a women safety detection system using GPS and GSM modems. The system can be interconnected with the alarm system and alert the neighbors. This detection and messaging system is composed of a GPS receiver, Microcontroller and a GSM Modem. PS Receiver gets the location information from satellites in the form of latitude and longitude. The Microcontroller processes this information and this processed information is sent to the user using GSM modem A GSM modem is interfaced to the MCU. The GSM modem sends an SMS to the predefined mobile number. When a woman is in danger and in need of self-defense then she can press the switch which is allotted to her. By pressing the switch, the entire system will be activated then immediately a SMS will be sent to concern person with location using GSM and GPS. This project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer. 1

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1.2 Introduction to Embedded Systems
The microprocessor-based system is built for controlling a function or range of functions and is not designed to be programmed by the end user in the same way a PC is defined as an embedded system. An embedded system is designed to perform one particular task albeit with different choices and options. Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either microcontrollers or digital signal processors. Microcontrollers are generally known as “chip”, which may itself be packaged with other microcontrollers in a hybrid system of Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). In general, input always comes from a detector or sensors in more specific word and meanwhile the output goes to the activator which may start or stop the operation of the machine or the operating system. An embedded system is a combination of both hardware and software, each embedded system is unique and the hardware is highly specialized in the application domain. Hardware consists of processors, microcontroller, IR sensors etc. On the other hand, Software is just like a brain of the whole embedded system as this consists of the programming languages used which makes hardware work. As a result, embedded systems programming can be a widely varying experience. An embedded system is combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed incapability or programmable, that is specifically designed for particular kind of application device. Industrial machines, automobiles, medical equipment, vending machines and toys (as well as the more obvious cellular phone and PDA) are among the myriad possible hosts of an embedded system. Embedded systems that are programmable are provided with a programming interface, and embedded systems programming id specialized occupation. 2

Embedded Systems



EX. Kiel, Arduino

Figure 1.1 Block diagram of embedded system

Figure2.1 illustrate the Block diagram of Embedded System (ES consists of hardware and software part which again consists of programming language and physical peripherals respectively). On the other hand, the microcontroller is a single silicon chip consisting of all input, output and peripherals on it. A single microcontroller has the following features:
1. Arithmetic and logic unit
2. Memory for storing program
3. EEPROM for nonvolatile and special function registers
4. Input/output ports
5. Analog to digital converter
6. Circuits
7. Serial communication ports
1.3 Applications of Embedded System
We are living in the embedded world. You are surrounded with many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning’s of these gadgets, television, radio, CD layer of your living room, washing machines or microwave oven in your kitchen, card readers, access controllers, palm devices of your work space enable to do many of your tasks very effectively. Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in your car take care of your car operation between the bumper and most of the times tend to ignore all these controllers. In recent days you are showered with variety of information about these embedded controllers in many places. All kind of magazines and journals regularly dish out details about latest technologies, new devices: fast applications which make you believe that your basic survival is controlled by these embedded products. Now you can agree to that fact these embedded products have successfully invaded into our world. You must be wandering about these embedded controllers or systems. The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a document or analyze the database is known as standard desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to serve many purpose and applications. 2

1.3.1 Military and Aerospace Software Applications
From in-orbit embedded system to jumbo jets to vital battlefield networks, designer’s performance, scalability, and high-availability facilities consistently turn to the Linux OS, RTOS and LinuxOS-178RTOs for software certification to DO-178B rich in system resources and networking serviced, Linux OS provides an off-the-shelf software platform with hard real-time response backed by powerful distributed computing(COBRA), high reliability’s software certification, and long term support options. 2

1.3.2 Communications Applications
Five-nine” availability, compact PCI hot swap support, and hard real-time response Linux OS delivers on these key requirements and more for today’s carrier-class systems. Scalable kernel configurations, distributed computing capabilities, intergraded communications stacks, and fault-management facilities make Linux OS the ideal choice for companies looking for single operating system for all embedded telecommunication applications from complex central to single line/trunk cards. 2

1.3.3 Electronics Applications and Consumer Devices
As the number of powerful embedded processor in consumer devices continues to rise, the blue cat Linux operating system provides a highly reliable and royalty-free option for system designers. And as the wireless appliance revolution rolls on, web enabled navigation systems, radios, personal communication devices, phones and PDA sell benefit from the cost-effective dependability, proven stability and full product lifecycle support opportunities associated with blue cat embedded Linux. Blue cat has teamed out with industry leaders to make it easier to build Linux mobile phones with java integration. 2

1.4 Industrial Automation and Process Control Software
Designers of industrial and process control systems know from experience that Linux works operating system provide the security and reliability that their industrial applications require. From ISO 9001 certification to fault-tolerance, secure portioning and high availability, we’ve got it all. The advantage of our 20 years of experience with the embedded system. Now a day’s embedded system widely using in the industrial areas to reduce to tike, perform the particular task. This replacing the less work and also more efficient gives the accurate result. 2

Block Diagram and Description
2.1 Block Diagram of the Project

GPS Receiver


GSM module

12v power

LCD Display

Figure2.1: Block diagram

2.2 Functions of Each Block
Power Supply:
The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy into another and, as a result power supplies.

The microcontroller is used to manipulate the serial operation based the program present in the output is taken from one of the four ports.

LCD Display:
LCDs are available to display arbitrary images which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits and 7 segment displays as in a digital clock. They use some basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of pixels, while other displays have larger elements.

Crystal Oscillator:
Crystal oscillator is used to produce oscillated pulses which are given to the microcontroller.

GSM Modem:
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900MHz.

GPS Receiver:
GPS, in full Global Positioning System, space-based radio-navigation system that broadcasts highly accurate navigation pulses to users on or near the Earth. In the United States’ Navistar GPS, 24 main satellites in 6 orbits circle the Earth every 12 hours. In addition, Russia maintains a constellation called GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System).

Technologies Used
3.1 GSM Technology
3.1.1 Definition of GSM
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz

Figure3.1: GSM modules
3.1.2 History of GSM
Global system for mobile communication is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. GSM, the Global System for Mobile communications, is a digital cellular communications system, which has rapidly gained acceptance and market share worldwide, although it was initially developed in a European context. In addition to digital transmission, GSM incorporates many advanced services and features, including ISDN compatibility and worldwide roaming in other GSM networks. The advanced services and architecture of GSM have made it a model for future third generation cellular systems, such as UMTS. This will give an overview of the services offered by GSM, the system architecture, the radio transmission. 3

Figure3.2: Graph for GSM module
3.1.3 GSM Services
• ?Tele-services
• ?Bearer or Data Services
• ?Supplementary services
Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones Offered services, Mobile telephony, Emergency calling

Bearer or Data Services:
Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN, ISDN etc. at rates from 300 to 9600 bps, Short Message Service(SMS) up to 160-character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal Unified, Messaging Services(UMS), Group 3 fax, Voice mailbox, Electronic mail. 2

Supplementary services
Call related services like Call Waiting- Notification of an incoming call while on the handset, Call Hold- Put a caller on hold to take another call, Call Barring- All calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls, Call Forwarding- Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user, Multi Party Call Conferencing – Link multiple calls together
• ?CLIP – Caller line identification presentation
• ?CLIR – Caller line identification restriction

Figure3.3: GSM Network Architecture
3.1.4 Operation GSM
The basis of the GPS is a constellation of satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth. These satellites, which are equipped with atomic clocks, transmit radio signals that contain their exact location, time, and other information. The radio signals from the satellites, which are monitored and corrected by control stations, are picked up by the GPS receiver. A Global Positioning System receiver needs only three satellites to plot a rough, 2D position, which will not be very accurate. 3

Figure3.4: GSM operation
3.1.5 Security in GSM
• On air interface, GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI.
• SIM is provided 4-8-digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM
• 3 algorithms are specified:
– A3 algorithm for authentication
– A5 algorithm for encryption
– A8 algorithm for key generation

3.1.6 Characteristics of GSM Standard
• Fully digital system using 900,1800 MHz frequency band.
• TDMA over radio carriers (200 KHz carrier spacing.
• 8 full rate or 16 half rate TDMA channels per carrier.
• User/terminal authentication for fraud control.
• Encryption of speech and data transmission over the radio path.
• Full international roaming capability.
• Low speed data services (up to 9.6 Kb/s).
• Compatibility with ISDN.
• Support of Short Message Service (SMS).
3.1.7 Advantages of GSM over Analog system
• Capacity increases
• Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life.
• International roaming capability.
• Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user authentication).
• Encryption capability for information security and privacy.
• Compatibility with ISDN, leading to wider range of services.

3.1.8 GSM Applications
• Mobile telephony
• Telemetry System
– Fleet management
– Automatic meter reading
– Toll Collection
– Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets

3.1.9 Future of GSM
• 2nd Generation
– GSM -9.6 Kbps (data rate
• Generation (Future of GSM)
– HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched data) its data rate: 76.8 Kbps (9.6 x 8kbps)
– GPRS (General Packet Radio service) its data rate: 14.4 – 115.2 Kbps
– EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) its data rate: 547.2 Kbps (max)
• 3 Generation
– WCDMA (Wide band CDMA its data rate: 0.348 – 2.0 Mbps