Between India and Pakistan, in December 1999, when an Indian airlines plane was kidnaped to Kandhar after flying from Katmandu. It was said that Hajj came from Pakistan and supported Pakistan intelligence (ISI). Heads of State demanded the Indian government to free five hundred prisoners. The main demand was that Mr. Masood Azhar, who was head of Pakistan-based militant organization Jesh E-Mohammad, who was involved in the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. Seven days later, the Indian government decided to release three terrorists, and in turn the kidnappers released the captured passengers. This incident proved to be the last nail in accordance with Pakistan’s negotiation process. The relations between the two countries arose at its lowest point of view, where each other aggression, community and animation. By the mid-2000s the dispute between India and Pakistan continued. Kashmir’s support for militants has increased in Kashmir, eliminating fighters, strengthening the Parliament’s parliament with the arrival of military regime in Pakistan. Pakistan’s aggression was due to his undesirable return from Kargil under international pressure due to which he had to step back and face a lot of criticism. (Khan, 2008:119-120).
4.2 Agra Summit 2001: The Revival of Bilateral Negotiations:
During 2000, Pakistan tried hard to convince India for bilateral talks and struggled to restore ties with India. Although Pakistan has accepted the aggressive fire from India, the Indian leadership did not respond much to the return of the troops from the borders. In 2001, when President Musharraf invited the Indian Prime Minister Atil Bahari Vajpayee, he severely broken, and showed sympathy about his sympathy during the quake in Kutch and Gujarat. Apart from this, Pakistan sent relief goods and medicines to the victims of earthquakes (Goswami, 2012:130).
Later the Indian Prime Minister pointed to Pakistan. On May 25, 2001, Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee invited General Musharraf’s chief executive to visit New Delhi for talks on top level. General Musharraf accepted the invitation and reached India on July 14, 2001. The Indian authorities welcomed the warmly. This is based on many expectations of the two countries. The leaders met in historic city Agra. The expectations of both countries were very high and the meeting was encouraged by the promotion of the two countries. (Nazir, 2004:34).
The four-round talks were held, and both the leaders talked about a serious concern about bilateral issues. They discussed the number of problems including Jammu ; Kashmir issue. The leadership of both sides emphasized the dispute resolution through two-way talks. India and Pakistan focus on the need to promote peace and cooperation. Pakistan expressed that India should accept Kashmir dispute as the main issue on the path of development of peace and mutual harmony. As far as the Indian leadership took a concrete steps to eliminate the Pakistani border terrorism. However, the difference between opinion on Kashmir and General Musharraf was that the cross-border terrorism was the result of conflict of Kashmir which could have ended in the dispute resolution. The two countries could not reach a joint statement and remained steadfast on their agenda, which ultimately resulted in the failure of two-way talks. In addition, the talks failed, but the two countries continued to negotiate in the future. Both countries focus on increasing the role of media for normalization of relations and Pakistan has allowed the Pakistani delegation to inform their people and present them to the Indian people.
However, all negotiations are moving towards the next summit. Actually the draft summit between the two Ministers and secretaries of the two countries was finalized, but Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee refused to sign the agreement in the last minute because his cabinet did not accept the agreement. . While the deal was rebuilt, the Indian leadership stepped back before signing the agreement (Goswami, 2012:131).
4.3 India-Pakistan Relations Post 9/11:
On September 11, 2001, the United States was killed by terrorist attacks, which changed the whole political scene of the world. These attacks suddenly surprise the whole world as well as the United States. Terrorism targeted two towers in New York’s World Trade Center and Washington DC in Pentagon. These attacks brought a major catastrophic and more than 7,000 people were killed. The US President decided to attack Al-Qaeda and his supporters to attack the Afghan fundamentalist rulers or the Taliban. Bush announces war against terrorism and directly supports Pakistan to capture al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders (Khanna, 2007:105).
The American stand was that he would not support the war against terrorism, he would be considered equal to the enemy. Pakistan was the only option to accept the American proposal of war against terrorism. President of US President Pervez Musharraf accepted the American demand and tried to provide support for all kinds of support including the United States and the road, including the US. Pakistan became the front state against the fight against terrorism and achieved more economic and military aid from the US.
After the 9/11 ceremony, a new dimension of conflicts between India and Pakistan. Pakistan became a state-led state in the fight against terrorism. Terrorism became a global threat and it opened a new chapter of conflict between India and Pakistan. India got the opportunity to get Kashmir problem with the process of global terrorism.
India has been announced that Pakistan should focus on terrorism with the help of Pakistan in the Kyrgyz border in Kashmir. For regional security and peace, India presented Kyrgyzstan an important concern for border terrorism. He emphasized that various Pakistani based terrorist groups and organizations in Pakistan were involved in cross-border terrorism. Indian President Abdul Malik Azad and Interior Minister K.K. Advani criticized Pakistan and said that the international community has taken some concrete steps to avoid large cost in this regard. (Singh, 2010:11).
There was an important event in December 2001, which included animated new chapter between India. On December 13, 2001, the Indian Parliament hit a terrorist attack in New Delhi. The result of the attack was not much harm, besides 13 people including terrorists were killed. At least forty five minutes of fighting between the invaders and the security forces continued. The sudden attack surprised the Indian government and the Indian Interior Minister described it as the biggest threat in the promotion of terrorism in two decades. He alleged that two Pakistan-based terrorist organizations were directly involved in parliamentary attacks. He also accused Pakistan’s Intelligence Agency Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) that he supports the terrorist network against India. The immediate response of Pakistan was filled with the grief of terrorist attacks. The response of the Indian government to terrorist attacks was very aggressive. He constantly declared India responsible for making insecurity in India(Chary, 2009:265).
Apart from this, India has named Pakistan-based organizations for Lashkar-e-Taiba (LI) and Jash Muhammad (GMM) for the insurgency in Kashmir. However, Pakistan rejected India’s allegations while claiming that there should be some appropriate evidence to the Indian government. In India, India called for India to stop cross-border terrorism. Apart from this, he removed Islamabad from high commissioner and diplomatic staff as well as eliminating all the transit links to Pakistan. The diplomatic relations of the two states once again reached the lowest level (Schaffer, 2009:174).
The misunderstanding continued and the major military stand between the two countries continued due to a severe conflict. India instantly deployed its boundaries (land, air, navy) to Pakistani borders. All communication connections were captured, including air, road and rail. The Indian government has made a strategy of aggression against Pakistan. The deployment of troops has been estimated that a million people with the border of the two countries. After the December 13 attacks, the Indian government was ready to deal with many threats to control against the victims of Pakistan and it expressed more aggression. There was a lot of aggression from India and its example is the largest movement of Indian soldiers with borders from May to June 2002(Nazir, 2004:36).
The conflict further added, and the risk of nuclear war between the two countries was developed. The statements of government officials in New Delhi have clarified that nuclear weapons were more likely to fight for the activities of jihadist camps in Azad Kashmir and to crush Pakistani military aid. President of Pakistan Musharraf made a statement before the Pakistani press and said:
“If the Indian Army only went to the same step in the international border or line control then insha Allah will pass the Pakistani army and the supporters of Pakistan around the Indian army and it will not be a traditional was” (Sagan, 2009:243).
Indian reaction was not very different and they declared Musharraf’s statement as the biggest threat to using nuclear weapons against them. Indian Defense Minister George Fernandez declared Musharraf’s statement as irresponsible and said:
“We can take a bomb or two or more. But when we answer, there will be no Pakistan”(Sagan, 2009:243).
The international community has widely condemned the nuclear and military aggression of both the states and forced them to move to reconciliation. He insisted that both countries should spoil their tension through the start of the negotiation process. On one side Pakistan was fighting the fight against terrorism, as the Allies of the United States, while engaged in the biggest military position with India. In the whole region’s security environment, in addition to terrorism and in military conflict, India was in danger due to Pakistan’s involvement. Now the role of the international community was very important to reject the tensions between the two countries.
President Bush had initially played an important role in preventing tension after the parliamentary elections in India. He telephoned with Prime Minister Vajpayee. In addition, he telephoned Pakistan President Musharraf so that he would take appropriate steps against the cross border terrorism in India. He forced Musharraf to take measures against the organizations, particularly in the fight against India. He assured Pakistan President that America was ready to provide all its assistance against the terrorist network. (Schaffer, 2009:175).