Assignment of Comparative Management
Topic: Models of National Culture
SIR SAJID TUFAIL
This article mainly arranges a summary with the comparison of the different models of national culture. This article is briefly, compare and evaluate the various models of the national culture. The determination of this article is to define the cross cultural models of national culture.
This article basically defines the importance of the national culture and how the cross cultural purpose would affect the models of national culture. The main motive of this article is to briefly investigate and describes the Single dimension model, Multi Dimension Model and the Historical social models.
These models apply within the background of the process and practice of management.
National Culture Defined
According to Hofstede National culture can be defined as the collective programming of the members of the group or society. This programming can form the values, attitudes, competences and perceptions of priority of nationality.
Fukuyama defines the national culture as Behaviour and attitudes reflecting the mind set of people.
The importance of National Culture on Management:
Hofstede presented the cultural dimension theories. All the researcher co-ordination towards the knowledge is cultural understanding. Such knowledge is necessary to develop the HRM at international level. Hofstede suggests, in concern, the cultural background of one country can be applied to another if it has good effect but there is no assurance that practises of management can developed this with one country culture background or not.
Purpose of cross culture on National Culture Modes
Current studies designate the generally accepted view that it is unworkable to take ethnocentric and universalistic view towards the practices of management and principles as they are applied in other countries and other cultures. According to Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars the judgement has two suggestions. These are best fit & Poly centricity. According to the best fit, Multinationals & international companies must use the contingency approach. Local issue should be resolved with that style of management. While on the other side poly centricity promotes the cultural diversity.
Single Dimension Models
This model categorized the high and low context cultures & Monochronic and polychronic cultures. In high context culture people communicate in ways that are understood and depend highly on background and they highly rely on interpersonal relationship. In low context cultures People finds information from research base and from the closed team members. Monochronic cultures like to do one thing at a time and this kind of culture act as intensively. Poly chronic culture like to do multiple things at once.
Trust analysis by Fukuyama’s
He shared the ethical values and he identifies and compares low trust and high trust societies. Fukuyama observed that high trust societies can arranged its workplace on a more flexible and group oriented basis with more responsibility.
Low trust societies have boundaries and their workers performs segregate with a series of bureaucratic rules. He said there is a relation between the hierarchy and the absence of trust if the hierarchy is high then the trust level would be low. High trust will be developed if the people are capable to perform their task. Fukuyama suggests that the most effective organizations are based on the communities of shared ethical values. High trust societies have strong organization; low trust societies have weak organizations. High trust societies shared the more ethical values; low trust societies have low level of interpersonal communication.
He makes specific reference to the condition of free riding which means that individual put their interest ahead of group interest. The classic dilemma of group behaviour is free riding problem.
Multiple Dimension Models
Three models which is based on the multi dimension model describes national culture model are Hofstede’s model, Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars Analysis and Lessem & Neubauer’s Analysis
Hofstede’s delivered five dimensions which proposed the national culture and their values ; how they affect the work environment on the basis of these dimensions. Power distance deals with the fact that how people are un equal on the basis of position and their status. Power distance would be high if people are un equal in a society ; it will be low if people are equal in a society on the basis of their role and position. Uncertainty Avoidance shows how society deals with reality of risk. How can a society tolerate with uncomfortable situation? Individualism-collectivism shows the comparative familiarity of the relationship between one person and others. Masculinity–femininity shows sexuality roles and how society agrees overlap between the role of women and men. Short term v/s long term orientation gives the high values to their traditions and they are ready to fulfil the social obligations. Long term orientation focussed on the future goals.
Hampden-Turner ; Trompenaars Analysis
This model was published in 1997 in their book Riding the waves of Culture. They developed this model after spending the 10 years of researching the preference and values of people in dozens of cultures around the world. They found that people from different cultures are not just randomly different from one another but they differ in very specific and predictable ways. These seven dimension values are:
1-Universalism versus particularism (Making rules and managing exceptions)
In universalism they highly rely on their own beliefs and values and in particularism they give people more autonomy to make their own decision.
2-Deconstructing and constructing (analysing versus integrating)
The management process requires both the analysis and the integration into whole patterns, relationships and wider context.
3-Managing communities or individuals
In individualism they belief their own decisions or in communities they believe that group is more important than individuals.
4-Internalising the outside world
It refers the how will be the purpose originate and where will be the direction value system will determine.
5-Synchronising time processes
The value system will decide the attitude to time and how it can be used. It has two reasons. These reasons are length of time and speed.
6-Achieved status versus ascribed status
This system need to determine the basis for allocating status and reward. The allocation of status may depend on the achievement of certain types of criteria directly associated with enterprise performance within its market or operating context.
7-Equality versus hierarchy
Value of different business importance the formation of hierarchal order and the achievement of equality.
Lessem ; Neubauer’s Analysis
European management systems analysed by Lessem & Neubauer. They considered the impression of national culture under the four related criteria. These are: The link between pragmatism and idealism that considered the European approaches to the theory and practice of management.
The link between the rationalist approach deals with management issues and the humanist approach that is considered of the family company of Italy and Spain.
Pragmatism is basically the cost and benefit analysis and it is both empirically and experimentally oriented. It is action oriented & focussed competitively. Turner & Trompenaars categorized this approach and they promote the individualism rather than communitarism. They focus on achieved status & specific approach. Rationalism is focused on the reason rather than experience. The main focus of this approach is organization structure role and hierarchy. Turner and Trompenaars categorized this approach and their focus towards the universalism & inner directedness. They focus on ascribed status and the acceptance of inequality. Wholism/Idealism is developmental process and it can be defined as something made up of parts in combination. Turner & Trompenaars characterized this approach as an importance on integration and a perception of time as synchronization as well as sequence and shows the tendency towards the communitarism as well as egalitarianism. Humanism is an emphasis on the family group and community and defined as the collective relation of mankind. Turner & Trompenaars categorized this approach as the management of communities of individuals and promotes the particularism and its tendency towards the outer directedness.
Historical social models dimension described National Culture Models. Bloom et al shared the basic characteristic of European management model.
The ability to accomplish international diversity: Europe history’s and trading needs have taught its people how to deal with diversity. Simultaneously the approval of this diversity makes European companies to develop ability to work successfully in other cultures and countries. An orientation towards the people European tend towards individualism in general terms, European regard people as an integral part of business. In Social Responsibility they act in a socially responsible way. European companies perceive themselves as an essential part of society. Internal negotiation: Negotiative is the basis of the internal transaction of European organization. Negotiative behaviour in general terms seen to be non-opportunist. A degree of informality the management process may be comfortable and natural with extreme verbal communication and periodic negotiation.
South East Asian Management
Researcher suggests the influence of this model on the development of management practices in south Asia. We can have summarised these as Taoism which denotes the principle that is the source pattern and substance of everything that exists. It highlights inter relationship and interaction of every entity in the world. Confucianism refers to a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius and developed by Mencius. It is based on the achievement of social harmony and social order within a hierarchically arranged society. Personal relationship Guanxi means developing ; maintaining personal relationship on the basis of continuing exchange of favours. Face is a person’s self-respect, status and prestige. Confucius identified five cardinal relations. The characteristic of these relationships are sincerity between father and son, order between younger and older brothers and truthfulness between the friends.
The strategic thinking of Sun TZU
Sun TZU was an advisor to Chinese Emperor. He identified the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of strategy by which to fight the wars or defeat the enemy. These strategies include the aspects like Strategic Management is about to adjust and implement the strategy. It involves the formulation and implementations of major goals and initiatives taken by the organization’s top management on the behalf of owners. Moral influence in a competitive business world, the manager should try to establish corporate goals and they are willing to accept the hardship and dangers of war. The Ability of General should possess the qualities of wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage and strictness. Regulation, Delegation, and Training sun TZU anxious the need formalised sets of rules and regulations. At the same times he emphasised the need for effective training because it is necessary to the achievement of organizational efficiency. The TAIPANS define by CRAGG as the supreme ruler. CRAGG describes the taipans as a senior executive or entrepreneur who have strongly autocratic and he avails the opportunity and manage the skills and support the innovation.