Actions or acts by which male captus

Actions or acts by which male captus, bene detentus can be performed can be quite diverse and any attempt for a priori categorization of these activities faces difficulties.
Professor Bassiouni addresses this issue first by stating that there are two ways by which a person can be transferred from one to another State. First way is by extradition as “a formal legal process” and the second is by “legal and extralegal rendition devices that do not fall within the framework of formal extradition.” Professor Bassiouni suggests that the second way can be performed by : (1) the abduction and kidnapping of a person in one state by agents of another state; (2) the informal surrender of a person by agents of one state to another without formal or legal process; and (3) the use of immigration laws as a device to directly or indirectly surrender a person or place him in a position in which he or she can be taken into custody by the agents of another state. Professor O’Higgins speaks of following “situations” : (1) the recovery of fugitive criminals in violation of international law-seizure in violation of customary international law or in violation of conventional international law; (2) the apprehension of a fugitive criminal in the territory of state B by private individuals, nationals of state A, with the connivance of the officials of state A; (3) the apprehension of a fugitive criminal in the territory of state B by private individuals, nationals of state A, without the connivance of the officials of state A; (4) the irregular apprehension of a fugitive criminal in state B by an official of state B prior to extradition to state A; (5) the mistaken surrender of a fugitive criminal by one state to another. Professor Kambovski in his book Me?unarodno