According to Lester

According to Lester (2013), cognitive engagement is divided into two components: psychological and cognitive. The psychological component includes motivational goals and self-regulated learning as it relates to investment, thoughtfulness, and willingness to put in the effort to comprehend complex ideas and master difficult skills. The psychological component stresses students’ investment in learning and motivation to learn.
An emerging factor in acquiring student engagement is by utilizing technology in the classroom instruction. It is because it has been a part of the daily lives of the 21st century learners. Absence of gadgets and modern tools would make learning process irrelevant. Technology arrives into the classroom and assists teachers in their efforts to make the learning process more engaging.
According to a study that explored student response system or clickers to engagement, instructors saw clickers as one tool in supporting student learning in their classrooms. The improved participation, immediate feedback, impact on attendance, and relatively easy formative assessment that result from the use of clickers provided the instructors a method of engaging students (Gok, 2011).
In other related study, it was also found out that clickers or SRS clickers can capture students’ attention through the simplicity, the novelty factor, and the fun element they bring to class; they improve participation in students through the anonymity they offer, especially important for students whose language of instruction is not their first language (Gachago, Morris, & Simon, 2011). This particular study is where the researcher anchored his inquiry which is the three levels of engagement model (attention, participation and peer learning). The research determined the perception of the students on the potential of Kahoot app on enhancing student engagement in respect with these three levels.