A time zone is where in different regions, a different local time is set in relation to a world standard time. The term for this world standard time is “Greenwich Mean Time.” Australia and the UK have different time zones as they are different sides of the world, as well as a separate time zone to the UK, they have 3 separate time zones. The International Date Line is the imaginary line that separates two consecutive calendar days. It has been changed various times in order to cater for different countries and their needs. An effect of crossing time zones and the IDL can be Jet Lag: those who are regular travellers have different ways in which they can limit the effects of jet lag.
Length of flight. The length of a flight is simply the amount of time you are on a flight from one destination to another. For example, London to New York, which takes approximately 6 hours, 47 minutes on a direct flight.
Extreme climatic conditions e.g. monsoons, hurricanes. The most intense storms affect areas around the Tropic Of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. The storms are seasonal; hurricane and typhoon seasons are between June and November, particularly August and September and the cyclone season is between November and March. Visitors tend to avoid taking their holidays in risk areas during these times and will book their holidays when the weather is more satisfactory. The most severe tropical storms are known as hurricanes, cyclones or typhoons; all of which depend on the location to occur. Hurricanes –
1. They rarely hit the same area twice and if visitors do want to travel during the hurricane season, they can get a good holiday for an excellent price.
2. They suffer disruption to their holidays.
3. Prospective holidaymakers may have their holiday cancelled.
4. They threaten personal safety and can result in loss of life.
1. Countries such as India and the exotic island of the Maldives, are affected by monsoons in the 2 seasons – wet which is from June to September and the dry from December to March.
2. During the wet season, monsoon rain can be torrential. It can affect travel and even cause floods.
3. 80% of India’s rain falls during the monsoon months of June to September.
4. The monsoon rains are sudden and can quickly be followed by sunshine.
5. In the Maldives, between the seasons, the temperature remains at a fairly constant 30c
6. The north-east monsoon lasts from January to March.
7. The south-west monsoon is from May to November.
8. Sudden rains can have a detrimental effect on a holiday and people who have planned a special holiday would need to take the weather into account.
Entry requirements e.g. visas, vaccinations, certificates. Depending on the destination, tourists may require various documents, including visas and vaccination certificates. These can take time to obtain and they also require additional money
Travel restrictions e.g. international conflicts, FCO advice (FCO website) Travel restrictions are put in place by the government after it has been determined that it is irresponsible for visitors to visit a destination, typically due to a hazardous political situation or an epidemic of a disease. Tour operators will offer customers that have already booked a holiday, a refund or an alternative holiday if restrictions are put in place after the booking of the holiday has been done. On a more serious level, those travellers who are independent are unlikely to receive any cover in the scenario that there is an outbreak of war or terrorist activity. The FCO has a responsibility to build the UK’s prosperity by increasing exports and investments, opening markets and promoting sustainable global growth.
Safety e.g. crime, unrest (FCO)
Health and safety issues e.g. HIV pandemics (FCO) Deep vein thrombosis – over the recent years, DVT has got more coverage in the media, more than any other air travel related issues. Passengers, flight attendants and even pilots are affected by this. Pilots more so as they are more likely to be sitting down for longer unlike the passengers who may walk about and the flight attendants that regularly exercise whilst on flight to try and deter this happening.
Social situations e.g. poverty, exploitation