1. Introduction
Various plant techniques and systems have been adopted for purpose of producing a considerable number of embryos in culture which has shared some properties similar to natural embryos, that includes germination leading to a production of a plant. For imitating the natural seeds, embryos which are from cultures are covered in a nutrient gel consisted of basic organic or inorganic salts, carbon source, plant hormones and antimicrobial agents and coated totally to protect the embryos from damages while handling as well as allowing the growth and germination to take place with the lack of undesirable variations. Some agents have been made for encapsulation and sodium alginate complexing along with calcium chloride has been noticed and found to be the most convenient.
Scientifically, the beginning of the Production of synthetic seeds process depends mainly on the factor of selection of good seeds and ensure their validity and safety and free from various diseases and negative causes, as the validity of agriculture depends on the vitality and strength of germination and moisture content, also a lack of interest in testing leads to a reduction in production by a certain amount depends on the nature of damage to this factor and its importance and role In the production process as a whole. “Artificial seeds have great potential for large scale production of plants at low cost as an alternative to true seeds” ( )
successful cultivations of any crop have relied on a number of essential factors as well as conditions. “Somatic embryogenesis produces somatic embryos and can be used for the production of synthetic seeds.” ( ) The selection of seed is one of the most essential, which is aimed at achieving the economic yield, because of the farmer’s benefit with regard to income. Production of synthetic seeds in horticultural plants using somatic embryos and other types of explants plays an important role in crop production. Quantity and Quality of the crop rely on the qualities and quality of seeds which is adopted in germination As well as the accuracy of the implementation of other agricultural operations. Therefore; it identify the seeds approved as derived from improved varieties of crops exceeding their qualities on another variety. The seeds agricultural value relies on some qualities, the most important of which are the following: High productivity, its Quality and quality of agricultural product, its resistance to various diseases and pests, resistance to inappropriate environmental conditions and its convenience for farming and harvesting techniques.
Artificial seeds are described as covered or encapsulated somatic embryos. They are considered as a product of somatic cells, therefore can be used for a broad scale clonal propagation. Except somatic embryos, other explants such as shoot tips, axillary buds have also been adopted in preparing artificial seeds. “Plant propagation through artificial seeds broadens the horizon of plant biotechnology and agriculture” ( ) .Artificial seeds have differnt applications in plant biotechnology as for instance the large scale clonal propagation, germplasm conservation, breeding of plants where propagation trough normal seeds is not probable, easy storage, genetic uniformity and transportation etc. For some plants such as ornamental plants, propagation trough somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seeds has been regarded as the sole way out.
Encapsulation technology has been an interesting research domain in biotechnology and broadly studied because of the fact that synthetic seeds are regarded convenient for conservation and delivery of tissue cultured plants in commercial and economic importance. Lately, hybrid plants, transgenic plants, endanger plants, economic plants, rare plants, cereals, fruits and medicinal plants have been adopted for synthetic seeds.. Synthetic seeds have been looked at as the true or original seed, in its struc┬Čture that are made through different methods where somatic embryoids are derived from plant tissue culture and they are encapsulated by a hydrogel and such encapsulated embryoids behave like original or true seeds in the case they are grown in soil and can be utilized as a natural seeds substitute .
Production technology of synthetic seeds in horticultural plants has offered techniques for preparing seed analogues from the micropropagules like, ” micro shoots ,apical shoot tips, embryogenic calli, somatic embryos as well as protocorm or protocorm-like bodies” ( )Micropropagules are encased in productive coatings of gelling agents such as alginate, agar, carrageenan, gellan gum (gelrite), sodium pectate, and carboxyl methyl cellulose. Micro shoots Encapsulation, somatic embryos as well as retrieval of plantlets have been reported in a number of plant species, such as “sandalwood, mulberry, banana, cardamom, sugar beet, rice and peer” ( ) Such evidences have brought that these seed production in horticultural plants utilizing somatic embryos and other kinds of explants is possibly fruitful for the huge scale propagation of superior hybrids of important species. As one of the essential value-added plant tissue culture outputs, the technology of artificial seed may only be successful with competent upstream production of micropropagules as well as downstream germination mechanisms for large portion of plant regeneration. Different micropropagules have been regarded for purpose of producing artificial seeds; Consequently, somatic embryos and axillary shoot buds have been favoured. This study provides both basic principles and applications of synthetic seeds, Somatic embryos have been used as the micropropagules to produce artificial seeds in a vast variety of fruit and crop species, including, Potatoes: The part used to produce artificial seeds is tubers, figs: The part used to produce artificial seeds is buds, Lilium: The part used to produce artificial seeds is the bulbs, Chinese jujupo: The part used to produce artificial seeds is somatic embryos, and Among each plant, a specific part is used for exact propagation and packaging to reach artificial seed production.
1.1Main objectives of research
One of the main research objectives is analysing and assessment of the process for Production of synthetic seeds- artificial seeds-mainly Potatoes, figs, Lilium: Chinese buckthorn in horticultural plants using somatic embryos by applying and adopting the method and mechanisms of accurate propagation